03/01/2008 – Language Editor at Astronomy and Astrophysics Observatoire Paris
01/04/2009 – 15/05/2009 Editorial Assistant at Astronomy and Astrophysics Paris
PREVIOUS POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH POSITIONS
08/11/2007 - 31/12/2009 Honorary postdoctoral researcher at Glasgow University
08/01/2006 - 08/11/2007 Postdoctoral fellowship, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy
16/04-31/12 in 2005 Universitäts-Sternwarte/Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen (Cluster galaxies)
16/09/2004-15/04/2005 Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany (Jan-Apr 2005)
Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching, Germany (Sep 04-Jan 05)
15/01/2002-15/09/2004 Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy Postdoctoral fellow (January 2002 - December 2004), Spectroscopy of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS).
01/09/1999-14/01/2001 Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom. PPARC Post Doctoral Research Associate (PDRA) in Extragalactic Astronomy (28 months) (PPARC grade Alpha 4) Planetary nebulae imaging, detection and kinematics of M31 bulge/halo.
PARALLEL ACADEMIC POSITION
01/02/1999-31/08/1999 University of Durham, United Kingdom.
Assistant to Starlink Computer Manager, Physics Department.
EDUCATION AND QUALIFICATIONS
01/10/1994-30/09/1998 University of Durham, United Kingdom. Ph.D. in Extragalactic Astronomy, Low-Luminosity Elliptical Galaxies Spectroscopic line-strength gradients, stellar populations & line-of sight velocity distributions of 14 low-luminosity elliptical galaxies. PhD Thesis Supervisor: Prof. Roger L. Davies.
Passed by PhD viva examination on 9th December 1998.
01/10/1990-30/06/1994 University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
BSc. Honours Physics & Astronomy (Upper Second Class).
Prizes: Carnegie Vacation Scholarship (1993), University Observatory, Glasgow, awarded to study buoyancy waves in upper atmosphere; the bias created by flux errors on star magnitudes measurements leading to publication Clarke (1996), MNRAS, 278, 635.
First & Second Class Mathematics/Physics/Astronomy degree exam exemptions (1990-3)
15/08/1985-30/06/1990 Greenock Academy, Greenock, United Kingdom.
5 Scottish Certificate of Education (SCE) Highers (1990): Mathematics (A), Physics (A), Chemistry (A), Computing (A), English (B); 5 SCE ``O'' Grades, 4 SCE Standard Grades (1989).
Prizes: Dux of School (1990), prizes in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Geography, Computing.
OBSERVING EXPERIENCE AND TALKS
WYFFOS spectroscopy for WINGS Nearby Clusters project, WHT, La Palma, 25-26 June 2003.
FORS2 multi-slit spectroscopy for EDisCS project, VLT, Paranal, Chile, 26-31 March 2003.
WYFFOS multi-fibre spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in M31, WHT, 25-28 October 2001.
Near-IR imaging of dwarf galaxies in Coma cluster, UKIRT, Hawaii, U.S.A., 5-6 April 2001.
Imaging of M31 halo for detection of planetary nebulae, INT, La Palma, 3-8 August 2000.
Long-slit spectroscopy of elliptical galaxies, Multiple Mirror Telescope, Tuscon, Arizona,
U.S.A., 22-25 February 1995.
Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at redshift z~2'', Arcetri, 10 October 2007.
Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at redshift z~2'', GMASS meeting, 14 May 2007.
Early-type galaxy evolution as function of redshift and environment'', Arcetri, 6 April 2006.
EDisCS: the ESO Distant Cluster Survey'', Seminar, Göttingen, 2 May 2005.
EDisCS: the ESO Distant Cluster Survey'', Seminar, Innsbruck, 7 April 2005.
EDisCS: the ESO Distant Cluster Survey'', Seminar, Padova, 30 May 2003.
Dynamics of the halo of M31'', Seminar, Padova, 2 May 2002.
Dynamics of the Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy'', IAU Symposium No. 209,``Planetary Nebulae - Their Role and Evolution in the Universe'', Canberra, Australia, 19-23 November 2001.
Halo mass dynamics of M31 using planetary nebulae velocities'' The Shapes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos'', Yale University, U.S.A., May 2001.
Spectroscopic ages of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies'', Birmingham, U.K., 25-26 May 1998.
Velocity anisotropies of elliptical galaxies'', National Astronomy Meeting, U.K., 9 April 1997.
Stellar populations of elliptical galaxies'', Preston Galaxy Workshop, U.K., 31 October 1996.
Part-time supervision of PhD students 1999-2001 (LJMU); 2003-2004 (Padova); 2005
(Göttingen) Correction of undergraduate solutions to Physics problems, University of Durham, 1994-1997.
Providing assistance to undergraduate students in computing laboratories, Univ. of Durham, 1995.
Participation in University Open Days 1993-1998. Data reduction experience
Extensive use of IRAF environment long-slit/multi-slit spectroscopy and near-IR UKIRT UFTI data reduction. Experience with Starlink tools and ESO-MIDAS. Telescope proposals successful AAO-2dF 2005A Galaxy star formation rates in the infall regions of a z~0.5 cluster (4 nights)
VLT-VIMOS P75/P77 The star formation histories of galaxies infalling into a cluster environment.
Name: Prof. Roger L. Davies Prof. Andrea Cimatti Dr. Bianca Poggianti
Address: Chairman of Physics & Dipartimento di Astronomia INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico
Philip Wetton Professor Universit`a di Bologna, di Padova of Astrophysics, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5 University of Oxford, Bologna, Italy I-35122, Padova Department of Physics Italy Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Rd. Oxford, United Kingdom.
Halliday, C., PhD Thesis, University of Durham, 1999, passed by exam, 9 December (1998).
Halliday, C., Davies, R.L., Kuntschner, H., Birkinshaw, M., Bender, R., Saglia, R., Baggley, G.,
Line-of-sight velocity distributions of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies, 2001, MNRAS, 326, 473.
Merrett, H. R., Kuijken, K., Merrifield, M. R., Romanowsky, A. J., Douglas, N. G., Napolitano, N. R.,
Arnaboldi, M., Capaccioli, M., Freeman, K. C., Gerhard, O., Evans, N. W., Wilkinson, M. I.,
Halliday, C., Bridges, T. J., Carter, D. Tracing the Star Stream Through M31 Using Planetary Nebula
Kinematics, 2003, MNRAS, 346, 62L. De Lucia, G., Poggianti, B.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Clowe, D., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poirier, S., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R. P., Simard, L., White, S.,
The Build-Up of the Red-Sequence in Galaxy Clusters since z~0.8, 2004, ApJ, 610, L77.
Halliday, C., Milvang-Jensen, B., Poirier, S., Poggianti, B.M., Jablonka, P., Aragon-Salamanca, A.,
Saglia, R. P., De Lucia, G., Pello, R., Simard, L., Clowe, D., Rudnick, G., Dalcanton, J., White, S.,
Zaritsky, D., Spectroscopy of high redshift galaxy clusters in the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS):
Redshifts, cluster velocity dispersions and cluster substructuring for 5 clusters, 2004, A&A, 427, 397.
Morelli, L., Halliday, C., Corsini, E. M., Pizzella, A., Thomas, D., Saglia, R. P., Davies, R. L., Bender, R.Birkinshaw, M., Bertola, F., Nuclear stellar discs in low-luminosity elliptical galaxies: NGC 4458 andNGC 4478, 2004, MNRAS, 354, 753.
Finn, R., Zaritsky, D., McCarthy, D.W., Poggianti, B., Rudnick, G., Halliday, C., Milvang-Jensen, B.,
Pello, R., Simard, L, H-derived star-formation rates for three z~0.75 EDisCS galaxy clusters, 2005, ApJ,
White, S. D. M., Clowe, D. I., Simard, L., Rudnick, G., De Lucia, G., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Bender, R.,
Best, P., Bremer, M., Charlot, S., Dalcanton, J., Dantel, M., Desai, V., Fort, B., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P.,
Kauffmann, G., Mellier, Y., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poggianti, B., Poirier, S., Rottgering, H.,
Saglia, R., Schneider, P, Zaritsky, D. EDisCS – the ESO Distant Cluster Survey: sample definition and
optical photometry, 2005, A&A, 444, 365.
Clowe, D., Schneider, P., Aragon-Salamanca, A., De Lucia, G., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Mellier, Y.,
Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poggianti, B., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R. P., Simard, L., White, S., Zaritsky,
D., Weak lensing mass reconstructions of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, 2005, A&A, 451, 395.
Poggianti, B., von der Linden, A., De Lucia, G., Desai, V., Simard, L., Halliday, C., Aragon-Salamanca,
A., Bower, R., Varela, J., Best, P., Clowe, D. I., Dalcanton, J., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R.,
Rudnick, G., Saglia, R., White, S. D. M., Zaritsky, D. The Evolution of the Star Formation Activity in
Galaxies and its Dependence on Environment, 2006, ApJ, 642, 188.
Johnson, O, Best, P. N., Zaritsky, D., Clowe, D. I., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P.,
Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poggianti, B., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R., Simard, L., White, S. D. M The Xray
properties of optically-selected z>0.6 clusters in the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, 2006, MNRAS, 371,
Halliday, C., Carter, D., Bridges, T.J., Jackson, Z.C.,Wilkinson, M.I.,Quinn, D.P.,Evans, N.W., Douglas,
N.G., Merrett, H.R., Merrifield, M.R., Romanowsky, A.J., Kuijken, K., Irwin, M.J., Planetary nebulae
velocities in the disc and bulge of M31, 2006, MNRAS, 369, 97.
Merrett, H.R., Merrifield, M.R., Douglas, N.G., Kuijken, K., Romanowsky, A.J., Napolitano, N.R.
Arnaboldi, M., Capaccioli, M., Freeman, K.C., Gerhard, O., Coccato, L., Carter, D., Evans, N.W.
Wilkinson, M.I., Halliday, C., Bridges, T.J., A deep kinematic survey of planetary nebulae in the
Andromeda galaxy using the Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph, 2006, MNRAS, 369, 120.
De Lucia, G., Poggianti, B.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., White, S.D.M., Zaritsky, D., Clowe, D., Halliday,
C., Jablonka, P., von der Linden, A., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R.P., Simard, L.
The build-up of the colour-magnitude relation in galaxy clusters since z~0.8, 2007, MNRAS, 374, 809.
Lilly, S. and 76 other authors including Halliday, C., zCOSMOS: a Large VLT/VIMOS redshift survey
Scarlata, C., Carollo, C.~M., Lilly, S.~J., Feldmann, R., Kampczyk, P., Renzini, A., Cimatti, A.,
Halliday, C., Daddi, E., Sargent, M.T., Koekemoer, A., Scoville, N., Kneib, J., Leauthaud, A.,
Massey, R., Rhodes, J., Tasca, L., Capak, P., McCracken, H.J., Mobasher, B., Taniguchi, Y.,
Thompson, D., Ajiki, M., Aussel, H., Murayama, T., Sanders, D.~B., Sasaki, S., Shioya, Y.,
Takahashi, M. The redshift evolution of early-type galaxies in COSMOS: Do massive early-type galaxies
form by dry mergers?, 2007, ApJ, 172, 494.
Desai, V., Dalcanton, J.J., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Jablonka, P., Poggianti, B., Gogarten, S.M., Simard, L.,
Milvang-Jensen, B., Rudnick, G., Zaritsky, D, Clowe, D. I., Simard, L., Halliday, C., Pello, R., Saglia, R.,
White, S.D.M., The Morphological Content of Ten EDisCS Clusters at 0.5 < z < 0.8, 2007, ApJ, 660,
Halliday, C., Daddi, E., Cimatti, A., Kurk, J., Renzini, A. Mignoli, M., Bolzonella, M., Pozzetti, L.,
Dickinson, M., Zamorani, G., Berta, S., Franceschini, A., Cassata, P., Rodighiero, G., Rosati, P., GMASS
ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z~2: I. The stellar metallicity, 2008, A&A, 479, 417.
Cimatti, A., Cassata, P., Pozzetti, L., Kurk, J., Mignoli, M., Renzini, A., Daddi, E., Bolzonella, M., Brusa,
M., Rodighiero, G., Dickinson, M., Franceschini, A., Zamorani, G., Berta, S., Rosati, P., Halliday, C.,
GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z ~ 2. II. Superdense passive galaxies: how did they form
and evolve?, 2008, A&A, 482, 21.
Milvang-Jensen, B., Noll, S., Halliday, C., Poggianti, B.M., Jablonka, P., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Saglia,
R.P., Nowak, N., von der Linden, A., De Lucia, G., Pello, R., Moustakas, J., Poirier, S., Bamford, S.P.,
Clowe, D.I., Dalcanton, J.J., Rudnick, G.H., Simard, L., White, S.D.M. and Zaritsky, D., Spectroscopy of
clusters in the ESO distant cluster survey (EDisCS). II.. Redshifts, velocity dispersions, and substructure
for clusters in the last 15 fields,2008, A&A, 482, 419.
Cassata, P., Cimatti, A., Kurk, J., Rodighiero, G., Pozzetti, L., Bolzonella, M., Daddi, E., Mignoli, M.,
Berta, S., Dickinson, M., Franceschini, A., Halliday, C., Renzini, A. Rosati, P., Zamorani, G., GMASS
ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z~2. III. The emergence of the color bimodality at z ~2, 2008 A&A,
Caputi, K. and 64 co-authors including Halliday C., The Optical Spectra of 24 mu-m Galaxies in the
COSMOS Field. I. Spitzer MIPS Bright Sources in the zCOSMOS-Bright 10k Catalog, 2008, ApJ, 680,
Poggianti, B.M., Desai, V., Finn, R., Bamford, S., De Lucia, G., Varela, J., Aragon-Salamanca, A.,
Halliday, C., Noll, S., Saglia, R., Zaritsky, D., Best, P., Clowe, D., Milvang-Jensen, B., Jablonka, P.,
Pello, R., Rudnick, G., Simard, L., von der Linden, A. and White, S., The relation between star formation,
morphology and local density in high redshift clusters and groups,2008, ApJ, 684, 888.
Adams, J., Halliday, C., Mednick, A., Usdin, M., Bertout, C. and Walmsley, M., English language editing
at A&A, 2008, A&A, 490, E19-E23.
Mignoli, M. and 64 co-authors including Halliday C., The zCOSMOS redshift survey: the threedimensional
classification cube and bimodality in galaxy physical properties, 2009, A&A, 493, 39.
Poggianti, B.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Zaritsky, D., De Lucia, G., Desai, V., Jablonka, P., Halliday, C.,
Milvang-Jensen, B., Rudnick, G., Varela, J., Bamford, S., Best, P., Clowe, D., Noll, S., Saglia, R., Pello,
R., Simard, L., von der Linden, A. and White, S., The environments of starburst and post-starburst
galaxies at z=0.4-0.8, 2009, ApJ, 693, 112.
Barazza, F.D., Jablonka, P., Desai, V., Jogee, S., Arag´on-Salamanca, A., De Lucia, G., Saglia, R.P.,
Halliday, C., Poggianti, B.M., Dalcanton, J. J., Rudnick G., Milvang-Jensen, B., Noll, S., Simard, L.,
Clowe, D.I., Pell´o, R., White, S.D.M., and Dennis Zaritsky, Frequency and properties of bars in cluster
and field galaxies at intermediate redshifts, 2009, A&A, 497, 713.
Maier, C. and 59 co-authors including Halliday, C The Dependence of Star Formation Activity on Stellar
Mass Surface Density and Sersic Index in zCOSMOS Galaxies at 0.5
Galaxies at 0.04 < z < 0.08, 2009, ApJ, 694, 1099.
Sánchez-Blázquez, P., Jablonka, P., Noll, S., Poggianti, B. M., Moustakas, J., Milvang-Jensen, B.,
Halliday, C., Aragón-Salamanca, A., Saglia, R. P., Desai, V., De Lucia, G., Clowe, D. I., Pelló, R.,
Rudnick, G., Simard, L., White, S. D. M., Zaritsky, D., Evolution of red-sequence cluster galaxies from
redshift 0.8 to 0.4: ages, metallicities, and morphologies, 2009, A&A, 499, 47.
Noll, S., Pierini, D., Cimatti, A., Daddi, E., Kurk, J.D., Bolzonella, M., Cassata, P., Halliday, C., Mignoli,
M., Pozzetti, L., Renzini, A., Berta, S., Dickinson, M., Franceschini, A., Rodighiero, G., Rosati, P.,
Zamorani, G., GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z~2. IV. The variety of dust populations,
2009, A&A, 499, 69.
Kurk, J., Cimatti, A., Zamorani, G., Halliday, C., Mignoli, M., Pozzetti, L., Daddi, E., Rosati, P.,
Dickinson, M., Bolzonella, M., Cassata, P., Renzini, A., Franceschini, A., Rodighiero, G., Berta, S.,
Witnessing the assembly at z=1.6 of a galaxy cluster (GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z~2 -
V), A&A accepted (arXiv:0906.4489).
De Lucia, G., Poggianti, B. M., Halliday, C., Milvang-Jensen, B., Noll, S., Smail, I., Zaritsky, D., On the
role of the post-starburst phase in the build-up of the red-sequence of intermediate redshift clusters, 2009,
MNRAS accepted (arXiv:0907.3922).
Rudnick, G., von der Linden, A, Pello, R., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Marchesini, D., Clowe, D.I., De Lucia,
G., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Poggianti, B.M., Saglia, R.P., Simard, L., White, S.D.
M., and Zaritsky, D., The Rest-Frame Optical Luminosity Function of Cluster Galaxies at z < 0.8 and the
Assembly of the Cluster Red Sequence, 2009, ApJ, 700, 1559.
Pozzetti, L. and 59 co-authors including Halliday, C., zCOSMOS - 10k-bright spectroscopic sample. The
bimodality in the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function: exploring its evolution with redshift, 2009, A&A revised
version after referee report.
Pello, R., Rudnick, G., De Lucia, G., Simard, L., Clowe, D.I., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Saglia, R.
P., White, S.D.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Halliday, C., Poggianti, B.M., Dalcanton, J.J., Dantel-Fort, M.,
von der Linden, A, Mellier, Y., Rottgering, H. and Zaritsky, D., Photometric redshifts and cluster
tomography in the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, 2009, A&A, accepted for publication.
Simard, L., Clowe, D. I., Desai, V., Dalcanton, J.J., von der Linden, A., Poggianti, B. M.., White, S.D.M..,
Aragon-Salamanca, A., De Lucia, G., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Saglia, R., Pello,
R., Rudnick, G., Zaritsky, D, 2009, A&A, accepted for publication.
Zucca, E., and 59 co-authors including Halliday, C., The zCOSMOS survey: the role of the environment in
file:///F|/ActiveData/Domestic/CLAIRE/2009/challiday.htm (8 of 17)22/11/2009 13:49:04
the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types, 2009, A&A, revised after referee report.
Iovino, A., and 59 co-authors including Halliday, C., The zCOSMOS Redshift Survey: how group
environment alters global dowsizing trends, 2009, A&A, accepted for publication.
Vergani, D., and 64 co-authors including Halliday, C., K+a galaxies in the zCOSMOS survey: Physical
properties of systems in their post-starburst phase, 2009, A&A, accepted for publication.
Bongiorno, A., and 63 co-authors including Halliday, C., The [OIII] emission line luminosity function of
optically selected type–2 AGN from zCOSMOS, 2009, A&A accepted for publication.
PUBLICATIONS:Conference proceedings and reports
Halliday, C. Baggley, G., Davies, R.L., Birkinshaw, M., Bender, R., Saglia, R.P., Line Strength Gradients
in Low Luminosity Galaxies, IAU 171, New Light on Galaxy Evolution, ed. R. Bender & R.L. Davies
Halliday, C., Halo mass dynamics of M31 using planetary nebulae velocities
Proceedings of Yale Cosmology Workshop, "The Shapes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos", New
Haven, Connecticut, USA May 2001, Yale University Press. Editor: P.Natarajan.
Halliday, C., Carter, D., Jackson, Z.C., Bridges, T.J., Evans, N.W., Wilkinson, M.,
Dynamics of the Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy, Proceedings of IAU Symposium 209, 2003
Publisher: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Editors: S. Kwok, M. Dopita and R. Sutherland.
Rudnick, G., White, S., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Bender, R., Best, P., Bremer, M., Charlot, S.,
Clowe, D., Dalcanton, J., Dantel, M., de Lucia, G. Desai, V., Fort, B., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P.,
Kauffmann, G., Mellier, Y., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poggianti, B., Poirier, S. Rottgering, H., Saglia,
R., Schneider, P., Simard, L., Zaritsky, D., Studying high redshift galaxy clusters with the ESO Distant
Cluster Survey, The Messenger, June 2003, volume 112.
Halliday, C., Milvang-Jensen, B., Poirier, S., Poggianti, B.M., Jablonka, P., Aragon-Salamanca, A.,
Saglia, R. P., De Lucia, G., Pello, R., Simard, L., Clowe, D., Rudnick, G., Dalcanton, J., White, S.,
Zaritsky, D., Spectroscopy of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS), Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters:
Intense Life in the Suburbs. Edited by Antonaldo Diaferio, IAU Colloquium 195, p.236-238.
De Lucia, G., Poggianti, B.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Clowe, D., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Milvang-
Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poirier, S., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R. P., Simard, L., Dalcanton, J., White, S., Zaritsky,
D., Build-up of the Colour-Magnitude Relation to z~0.8, Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters: Intense Life in the
Suburbs. Edited by Antonaldo Diaferio, IAU Colloquium 195, p.473-477.
Marmo, C., Fasano, G., Pignatelli, E., Poggianti, B., Bettoni, D., Halliday, C., Varela, J., Moles, M.,
Kjaergaard, P., Couch, W., Dressler, A. 2004, Scaling relations for galaxy clusters (for the Wide-field
Imaging survey of Nearby Galaxy clusters - WINGS), Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters: Intense Life in the
Suburbs. Edited by Antonaldo Diaferio, IAU Colloquium 195, 242-244.
file:///F|/ActiveData/Domestic/CLAIRE/2009/challiday.htm (9 of 17)22/11/2009 13:49:04
Merrett, H. R., Merrifield, M. R., Kuijken, K., Romanowsky, A. J., Douglas, N. G., Napolitano, N. R.,
Arnaboldi, M., Capaccioli, M., Freeman, K. C., Gerhard, O., Carter, D., Evans, N. W., Wilkinson, M. I.,
Halliday, C., Bridges, T. J., Mapping the Dynamics of M31, Proc. of ESO Workshop on Planetary
Nebulae beyond the Milky Way, 2006, Stanghellini, L., Walsh, J. R., Douglas, N. G., 281.
Gogarten, S.M., Dalcanton, J.J., Simard, L., Rudnick, G.G., Desai, V., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Clowe, D.
I., Poggianti, B.M., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Halliday, C., von der Linden, A., De Lucia, G.,
White, S.D.M., Saglia, R., Noll, S. "The Size-Luminosity Relation of Disk Galaxies in EDisCS Clusters",
2006, IAU Symposium, 235.
Halliday, C., Cimatti, A. Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at z~2, Proc. of At the Edge of the
Universe: Latest Results from the Deepest Astronomical Surveys, Editors J. Afonso, H.C. Ferguson, B.
Mobasher, R. Norris.
Kurk, J., Cimatti, A., Zamorani, G., Halliday, C., Mignoli, M., Pozzetti, L., Daddi, E., Renzini, A.
Bolzonella, M., Dickinson, M., Berta, S., Franceschini, A., Cassata, P., Rodighiero, G., Rosati, P.,
A spectroscopic study of a z=1.6 galaxy overdensity with GMASS, Proc. Of First Subaru International
Conference: "Panoramic Views of Galaxy Formation and Evolution", in Hayama, Japan, December 2007.
Kurk, J., Cimatti, A., Daddi, E., Mignoli, M., Bolzonella, M., Pozzetti, L., Zamorani, G., Cassata, P.,
Halliday, C., Berta, S., Brusa, M., Dickinson, M., Franceschini, A., Rodighiero, G., Rosati, P., Renzini,
A VLT Large Programme to Study Galaxies at z ~ 2: GMASS - the Galaxy Mass Assembly Ultra-deep
Spectroscopic Survey, 2009, The Messenger, 135, 40.
Poggianti, B., Aragón-Salamanca, A., Bamford, S., Barazza, F., Best, P., Clowe, D., Dalcanton, J., De
Lucia, G., Desai, V., Finn, R., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Johnson, O., Milvang-Jensen, B., Moustakas, J.,
Noll, S., Nowak, N., Pelló, R., Poirier, S., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R., Sánchez-Blázquez, P., Simard, L.,
Varela, J., von der Linden, A., Whiley, I., White, S., Zaritsky, D. The ESO Distant Cluster Sample:
Galaxy Evolution and Environment out to z = 1, 2009, The Messenger, vol. 136, p. 54.
Description of research experience
PhD thesis research at the University of Durham, United Kingdom
In my PhD thesis research I completed an analysis of long-slit spectroscopy for the major and
minor axes of 14 low-luminosity early-type galaxies (with -17 > MB > -20) in the Virgo cluster
and small groups (Halliday 1999; Halliday et al. 2001), acquired using the Multiple Mirror
Early-type galaxy age and metallicity were constrained by the measurement of the spectroscopic
absorption line-strength indices of the Lick/IDS system. I measured Hbeta, Mgb, Mg2, Fe5270
and Fe5335 Lick/IDS indices as a function of radius (for a signal-to-noise of ~50/angstrom) to
one photometric radius for the major and minor axes of each galaxy adopting the index
definitions of Trager et al. (1998); index measurements were fully established to the Lick/IDS
system by correcting for the effects of galaxy velocity dispersion using stellar data and correcting
data to the resolution of the Lick/IDS system. I studied the galaxy star formation histories by
comparison with the evolutionary population synthesis models of Worthey (1994). I detected age
gradients for 5 of 14 galaxies, and metallicity gradients for all galaxies. Measurements of Mg2/
Mgb and Fe5270 and Fe5335 were found to be offset in general from models, indicative of a light
element overabundance and relatively brief star formation timescales. This overabundance was
constant as a function of radius, in most cases, consistent with the coeval formation of the galaxy
Galaxy line-of-sight velocity distributions
I constrained the shape of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) to one effective radius
of the major and minor axes of each galaxy using the parameterization defined by Gerhard (1993)
and van der Marel & Franx (1993) to quantify asymmetrical and symmetrical deviations of the
LOSVDs from a Gaussian distribution (Halliday et al., 2001). Non-zero LOSVD asymmetries
were measured for the major axis of all galaxies; measurements for the minor axes were close to
zero if present at all. These results were consistent with the presence of global rotation or more
than one kinematical component. Kinematically-decoupled cores (KDCs) were detected for 2
galaxies: NGC 4458, for which a rotating core was detected; and the well-known KDC galaxy
NGC 3608. A kinematically-distinct core was detected in NGC 4478, a nearby compact elliptical
companion of M87. At the galaxy centre, NGC 4478 has complex kinematics along both its
major and minor axes, including a central decrease in velocity dispersion. With PhD student
Lorenzo Morelli, NGC 4458 and NGC 4478 were the subject of a paper in which stellar
population data was interpreted with the detection of a central nuclear disk for both galaxies
using HST imaging and comparison with evolutionary population synthesis models. The centre of
NGC 4478 was found to be more metal-enriched and younger, and to have lower light element
abundances, suggesting a more prolonged star formation history than its parent galaxy. By
contrast, the centre of NGC 4458 was found to have similar stellar populations to the surrounding
galaxy, suggesting a more homogenous formation of core and galaxy (Morelli et al., 2004).
Planetary nebulae surveys of the Andromeda Galaxy
I played an important role in an imaging and spectroscopy survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in
the Andromeda Galaxy. Our project started with the acquisition of WYFFOS (WHT, La Palma)
multi-object spectroscopy for 294 PNe at the centre of M31 from the catalogue of Ciardullo et al.
(1989). I reduced this data and measured the PNe radial velocities and rotation at the galaxy
centre. With a PhD student, I acquired Wide Field Camera (INT, La Palma) [OIII] narrow-band
and continuum band imaging to survey the bulge of M31 to a radius of 14 kpc (1/3 of field was
covered in Halpha), and completed WYFFOS spectroscopy for 423 PNe detected in our imaging
survey. I completed all 6 nights of INT WFC imaging observations with Z. Jackson and
subsequent imaging data reduction alone. For our spectroscopic data, I measured radial velocities
for 723 (unique) PNe by fitting the wavelength position of the [OIII]5007 emission line. For
many spectra, the weak [OIII]4959 emission line was also visible confirming that high-redshift
emission-line galaxies had not been observed. Stellar rotation & velocity dispersion were
measured to a projected radius of 11.5 kpc using our PNe radial velocity dataset, and our data
were consistent with bulge rotational support out to this radius. Our research was published in
The ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS)
Since January 2002 I have been part of a study of galaxy formation and evolution in high-redshift
clusters as part of the spectroscopic phase of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) (P.I.:
Simon D.M. White, http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/galform/ediscs/index.shtml), which is a
photometric and spectroscopic survey of galaxies in 26 EDisCS clusters in the redshift range 0.40
0.96 selected from the optical Las Campanas Distant Cluster Survey (Gonzalez et al., 2001).
Our project is based on deep optical photometry acquired with FORS VLT (White et al. 2005),
near-IR photometry acquired with SOFI NTT (Aragón-Salamanca et al. in prep), and multi-slit
spectroscopy from FORS2 VLT (Halliday et al. 2004; Milvang-Jensen et al. 2008). These groundbased
data were complemented by HST ACS images for 10 clusters (Desai et al. 2007), XMM
data for 3 clusters (Johnson et al. 2006), and ESO 2.2m WFI BVI wide imaging for 19 clusters.I
have participated in the project spectroscopic phase: the acquisition, reduction, analysis, and
interpretation of the VLT FORS2 spectroscopy. I had primary responsibility for the data
reduction of VLT FORS2 spectroscopic data acquired in 2002 during 11 nights of observations of
35 multi-slit masks, and was first author of the first spectroscopy paper of the EDisCS project
(Halliday et al. 2004), in which we presented our target-selection strategy, observations, data
reduction procedures, galaxy redshift measurements, and a constraint of cluster substructure for 5
EDisCS galaxy clusters. We demonstrated how our selection strategy had maximised our cluster
galaxy dataset, which were targetted using our VLT FORS optical and SOFI NIR imaging and
photometric redshift algorithms. We detected significant cluster substructure for two EDisCS
clusters of cluster velocity dispersions exceeding 1000 km s-1: these clusters are unlikely to be
Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at redshift z ~2
Galaxy star formation histories can be constrained using the chemical abundances of galactic
stars and interstellar medium. Gas-phase metallicities of intermediate to high redshift (z~2) starforming
galaxies measure oxygen abundances using the R23 and N2 methods. At z~2 these methods
require near-infrared spectroscopic data and important diagnostic lines become affected by
terrestial sky-line emission (Erb et al 2006).
With Emanuele Daddi, Andrea Cimatti and the GMASS collaboration, I have measured the
stellar metallicity of redshift z~2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) using a photospheric absorptionline
index defined by Rix et al. (2004) (R04) in the rest-frame ultra-violet (UV) (the 1978 index).
R04 used Starburst99 stellar population synthesis model predictions of star-forming galaxies
(Leitherer et al. 1999) and the non-LTE OB stellar atmosphere code WMBasic (Pauldrach et al.
2001) to derive theoretical, star-forming galaxy spectra for metallicities of 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, 1.0, and
2.0 solar. We constrained the stellar metallicity of SFGs at z~2 in the Galaxy Mass Assembly
ultradeep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS) by selecting and coadding 75 star-forming galaxy
spectra. The equivalent width (EW) measurement of the 1978 index determined for our coadded
spectrum of 75 star-forming galaxies was 3.72 angstroms for a mean weighted stellar mass of 9.4
x 109 solar masses. Using our recalibration of the R04 empirical relation for GMASS rest-frame
spectral resolution, we inferred a measurement of galaxy stellar metallicity and its error of 0.267
(+0.118/–0.082) solar. We directly compared our coadded galaxy spectrum with the R04 model
spectra for 5 metallicities of 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 solar. We found closest agreement
between our spectrum and the R04 model spectrum for 0.2 times solar metallicity. Our stellar
metallicity measurement is lower than the gas-phase metallicity observational data of Erb et al.
(2006) for galaxies of similar stellar mass. We propose that we are observing a light element
overabundance being established in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.
Proposed research plans
Identifying the primary drivers of galaxy formation and evolution with redshift
Determining how a galaxy in the present-day Universe formed at higher redshift remains one of
the most disputed questions in observational astrophysics. This question may be difficult to
answer for each single galaxy but considerable insight continues to be obtained by the
comprehensive detection and measurement of the properties of galaxies of all types at all
redshifts. I propose to research with members of the zCOSMOS collaboration at ETH Zurich to
help establish the most complete catalog in terms of both mass, environment, and redshift of
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galaxy properties achievable to redshift z~2. I propose to help compare these data with theoretical
predictions of galaxy properties as a function of redshift of cosmological simulations that
incorporate the latest models of how e.g., the galaxy star formation history, gas content, mass and
metallicity are affected by different environments. Group environments are understood to play
significant roles in forming galaxy morphology, star formation histories, and galaxy gas
reservoirs. I propose to help achieve 100% spectroscopic completeness for all groups detected by
Knobel et al. by observing all candidate group members (as yet unobserved) according to the
photometric redshifts of the 30K photometric survey. A remaining open question is whether
groups themselves are responsible for the present-day distribution of galaxy properties or if
additional processes affect for example galaxies destined to become members of galaxy clusters
at intermediate to low redshift. I propose to compile complementary data sets of rich clusters
from z~1 to z~0. At redshifts as high as 2, it would be invaluable to identify and acquire
spectroscopic data of galaxy group members and field galaxies to measure the higher redshift
properties of the possible progenitors of galaxies in lower redshift galaxy clusters and groups,
respectively. I would develop campaigns to acquire deeper spectroscopic data of galaxies in
representative group, field and cluster samples to ensure that Balmer absorption indices can be
measured reliably for galaxies observed so far by zCOSMOS and to perform e.g., measurements
of galaxy velocity dispersions for absorption-line galaxies and to reconstruct the internal velocity
fields of emission-line galaxies. A dependence of galaxy star formation histories and rates on
cluster environment would be assessed by analyzing wide-field spectroscopy of galaxies falling
into high redshift galaxy clusters. To achieve this aim at z~0.8, an EDisCS ESO VLT VIMOS
Service Mode proposal was approved time to observe the EDisCS cluster cl1216 in Period 75,
and reapproved in Period 77 during which 6% of our science observations were completed.
Another important galaxy property that I propose to help measure is the amount of gas in a
galaxy. I would hope to collaborate with the ZENS survey to measure the gas mass inferred from
HI measurements. At higher redshift, I would develop practical methods based on CO data out to
redshift of two.
Local Group galaxy evolution: M31
Galaxies are believed to form by the accretion and merger of smaller galactic subunits as
described by Lambda CDM hierarchical cosmological scenarios (e.g., Springel, Frenk & White
2006). These models predict that galactic haloes contain the remnants of progenitor galaxies and
should be metal-poor and have substructure detectable in kinematical and chemical metallicity
data. Lambda CDM predictions are supported by detection of tidal streams and accreted dwarf
satellites in the Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), and observations of stellar
substructure in RGB star surveys of M31. Galaxy disk, bulge, and halo kinematics have been
measured for M31 (e.g., Halliday et al. 2006, Merrett et al. 2006). These data are most practically
acquired for galaxies in the Local Group, and while distances to Galactic stars remain uncertain a
prime target for study of galaxy dynamics and kinematics is our neighbour spiral galaxy M31.
Planetary nebulae (PNe) are detectable to all galactic radii because of their [OIII] emission lines
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and at radii far beyond one effective radius provide alternative tracers to the faint integrated
stellar light. They are the dying remnants of ~1-8 solar mass stars and therefore representative
members of the galactic stellar population. The abundances of elements such as oxygen and neon
change during the lifetime of a star because of the dredge-up of stellar nucleosynthesis products.
In contrast, elements such as sulphur, chlorine, and argon have abundances that remain
unchanged and provide reliable measures of the galaxy metallicity at the time of formation of its
stars. Henry, Kwitter & Balick (2004) presented sulphur, chlorine, and argon chemical abundance
data of 85 Galactic PNe.
We propose to complete a homogeneous wide-field imaging survey of the halo of M31 to detect
PNe to a galactic radius of 40 kpc well into the galactic halo. Follow-up spectroscopy survey data
would measure the abundances sulphur, chlorine, argon, oxygen, and neon. Ionisation correction
factors (ICFs), often applied when measuring galaxy metallicities using the electron temperature
method, would be calibrated to allow, in the future, more practical measurements of abundances
using spectroscopic data with more restricted wavelength ranges. With collaborators, I propose to
investigate whether the sulphur anomaly found by Henry, Kwitter & Balick (2004) for the Galaxy
exists for M31 or if it is caused by present calibrations of the sulphur ICFs. Metallicity data
would be compared with similar data for M31 red giant stars and globular clusters (GCs). It is
unclear whether the GCs observed by Huxor and collaborators originate from the formation of
M31, or if they were accreted during a recent merger event, hierarchical build-up of M31, or were
formed during dissipational assembly of the galaxy. Surveys of red-giant star have been
completed out to 70 kpc but these studies have been completed for small fields of view. I propose
to complete a contiguous, wide-field survey of the PNe stellar population of M31, to a radius of
40 kpc. Measuring the total mass of M31 is another outstanding problem, since both the orbits of
stars and the velocity anisotropy must be constrained. The mass of the halo of M31 was measured
by Evans & Wilkinson (2000) and Evans et al. (2000) using kinematics of PNe, globular clusters
and satellite galaxies. PNe are more numerous than GCs and in spite of a decline in number
density with radius, the kinematics of PNe at large galactic radii provide important data for
measuring the halo mass. We propose to complete spectroscopic projects to measure PNe radial
velocities, to a galactic radius of 40 kpc. These data could contribute to ongoing analyses of the
galaxy kinematics and velocity anisotropy being directed by Mark Wilkinson. In collaboration
with Romano Corradi, Bruce Balick, and Karen Kwitter, 4 nights of INT WFC observational time
was awarded in September 2007 to extend our M31 PNe detection survey to 20 kpc.
The X-ray perspective of early-type galaxy formation
I would have interest to study early-type galaxy formation, using existing X-ray data. The
formation of early-type galaxies (ETGs: ellipticals and S0s) is an outstanding puzzle in
extragalactic astronomy. Study of the evolution in rest-frame optical luminosity functions to a
redshift z~1 supports a galaxy down-sizing scenario whereby massive ETGs (MB 1010
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MBSOLAR) were assembled and experienced little star formation after z~1, and less massive
ETGs instead formed at redshifts below z~1 as the result for example of the truncation of star
formation in disk galaxies (e.g., Cimatti et al. 2006; Scarlata et al. 2006). In the local Universe,
this bimodal nature in star formation histories is reproduced by the SAURON survey (e.g.,
Kuntschner et al. 2006). The global kinematics of ETGs are furthermore dependent on
luminosity: massive “giant ellipticals” are primarily anisotropic rotators, their structure supported
by random motion indicative of a dissipationless formation; less-luminous ellipiticals are
isotropic rotators most likely formed as the result of a more dissipational collapse. For galaxies in
general, in the local Universe, Kauffmann et al. (2003) identified a discontinuity in physical
properties of 105 galaxies at stellar mass ~3x1010 MBSOLAR. In theoretical cosmological
simulations Kereš et al. (2005) found a mass dividing galaxies formed primarily by cold gas
accretion (<1011 MBSOLAR) and hot gas accretion. These observational and theoretical data
cannot yet provide unique answers to the question of how ETGs form. A wider set of
observations should provide additional clues. I propose to help develop research projects to
explore the X-ray properties of ETGs as a function of galaxy luminosity, redshift, and
environment. I propose to relate physical properties (age, metallicities, colours, alpha-element
overabundances) of early-type galaxies, to their X-ray emission properties at different redshifts.
Early-type galaxy X-ray emission has been poorly studied outside the nearby Universe where
individual X-ray sources have been resolved by the Chandra observatory for a few tens of
galaxies. Based on these studies, two types of early-type galaxies (ETGs) have been identified
based on the main contributors to their X-ray emission: “optically-bright” ETGs (LB 1010
LBSOLAR), and “optically-faint” ETGs (LB < 1010 LBSOLAR). The typical rest-frame X-ray
spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of “optically-bright” ETGs are believed to be dominated by
hot interstellar gas at soft X-ray energies (0.5 - 2 keV), and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) at
hard X-ray energies (2 keV). In contrast the X-ray emission of “optically-faint” ETGs is due
primarily to LMXBs at both soft and hard X-ray energies, with a mild contribution from
interstellar gas at soft X-ray energies. In nearby galaxies, LMXBs are believed to form mainly
inside globular clusters (“optically-bright” ETGs), or in the galactic field (“optically-faint”
ETGs). Determining the origin of the LMXB populations and the interstellar gas components of
ETGs, will help determine until when recent star formation continued, the source of the
interstellar gas heating (supernovae, winds, AGNs), and the evolution in the ratio of X-ray to
optical luminosity with redshift.
Only ETGs within the local Universe are detectable individually by X-ray observations. To
monitor galaxy X-ray luminosity evolution with redshift, data must be combined i.e., “stacked”
as a function of galaxy properties. Lehmer et al. (2007) (L07) demonstrated the power of this
approach. For stacked X-ray data of ~500 ETGs, identified using data from the GEMS and
COMBO-17 surveys, they detected evolution in the X-ray luminosity of “optically-faint” ETGs
but no evolution for “optically-bright” ETGs; this is consistent with scenarios of galaxy
downsizing. They attributed the evolution in X-ray luminosity of “optically-faint” ETGs to the
emergence of an LMXB population, following a star-formation episode in the past 1 Gyr, and its
subsequent decline in X-ray luminosity. It would be invaluable to verify this conclusion using
spectroscopic data. I propose to study the evolution in ETG X-ray luminosity to a redshift z~1
and (if possible) as a function of environment. ETGs would be identified with spectroscopic,
morphological, and photometric data. Spectroscopic absorption-line indices defined by the Lick/
IDS system (e.g., using index definitions from Trager et al. 1998) would be measured in
“stacked” spectra created by combining available spectra of ETGs for which X-ray data were
stacked. AGN contamination remains a major concern (cf. L07), and would be addressed using
companion photometric and X-ray data sets.
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