Latest Space News
Fri, 20 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100
"Using a model that more realistically simulates atmospheric conditions, we discovered a new process that controls the habitability of exoplanets and will guide us in identifying candidates for further study," said Yuka Fujii of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), New York, New York and the Earth-Life Science Institute at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, lead author of a paper on the research published in the Astrophysical Journal Oct. 17. Previous models simulated atm...
Thu, 19 Oct 2017 22:40:00 +0100
NASA has selected Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) of Hawthorne, California, to provide launch services for the Sentinel-6A mission. Launch is currently targeted for November 2020, on a SpaceX Falcon 9 Full Thrust rocket from Space Launch Complex 4E at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The total cost for NASA to launch Sentinel-6A is approximately $97 million, which includes the launch service and other mission related costs. The Sentinel-6A mission, also known as Jason Conti...
Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100
NASA Team Finds Noxious Ice Cloud on Saturn's Moon Titan Researchers with NASA's Cassini mission found evidence of a toxic hybrid ice in a wispy cloud high above the south pole of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The finding is a new demonstration of the complex chemistry occurring in Titan's atmosphere-in this case, cloud formation in the giant moon's stratosphere-and part of a collection of processes that ultimately helps deliver a smorgasbord of organic molecules to Titan's surface. Inv...
Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100
ESO's fleet of telescopes in Chile have detected the first visible counterpart to a gravitational wave source. These historic observations suggest that this unique object is the result of the merger of two neutron stars. The cataclysmic aftermaths of this kind of merger - long-predicted events called kilonovae - disperse heavy elements such as gold and platinum throughout the Universe. This discovery, published in several papers in the journal Nature and elsewhere, also provides the strongest ev...
Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100
For the first time, NASA scientists have detected light tied to a gravitational-wave event, thanks to two merging neutron stars in the galaxy NGC 4993, located about 130 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Hydra. Shortly after 8:41 a.m. EDT on Aug. 17, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope picked up a pulse of high-energy light from a powerful explosion, which was immediately reported to astronomers around the globe as a short gamma-ray burst. The scientists at the National S...
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 18:43:00 +0100
Thales Alenia Space has signed a contract with Airbus Defence and Space GmbH to develop the feed array system for the antenna on the European Space Agency's Biomass spacecraft. This equipment is essential to guarantee the full satellite performance. One of ESA's Earth Explorer missions dedicated to protect our planet, Biomass will help us understand the quantity of carbon stored in the world's forests within the global carbon cycle. Due for launch in 2021, Biomass is primarily designed to d...
Sun, 15 Oct 2017 08:00:00 +0100
A United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket carrying a payload for the National Reconnaissance Office lifted off from Space Launch Complex-41 on Oct. 15 at 3:28 a.m. EDT. Designated NROL-52, the mission is in support of national security. "Today's launch is a testament to the tireless dedication of the ULA team, demonstrating why ULA continues to serve as our nation's most dependable and successful launch provider," said Laura Maginnis, ULA vice president of Government Satellite Launch. "Af...
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 13:05:00 +0100
The first Copernicus mission dedicated to monitoring our atmosphere, Sentinel-5P, has been launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia. The 820 kg satellite was carried into orbit on a Rockot launcher at 09:27 GMT (11:27 CEST) today. The first stage separated 2 min 16 sec after liftoff, followed by the fairing and second stage at 3 min 3 sec and 5 min 19 sec, respectively. The upper stage then fired twice, delivering Sentinel-5P to its final orbit 79 min after liftoff. ...
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 10:55:00 +0100
The first full-scale model of the rocket motor that will propel Ariane 6 and Vega-C into orbit has been cast and filled with inert propellant for testing at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana. The P120C is the largest solid-propellant rocket motor ever built in one segment. Each P120C will hold over 140 tonnes of propellant in a carbon fibre casing almost 11.5 m long and about 3.4 m in diameter. It is derived from Vega's current first stage motor, the P80, which holds 88 tonnes of propell...
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100
There's no map showing all the billions of exoplanets hiding in our galaxy -- they're so distant and faint compared to their stars, it's hard to find them. Now, astronomers hunting for new worlds have established a possible signpost for giant exoplanets. A new study finds that giant exoplanets that orbit far from their stars are more likely to be found around young stars that have a disk of dust and debris than those without disks. The study, published in The Astronomical Journal, focused on ...
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100
Our 4th Space Resiliency Summit is designed as an educational and training ''Town Hall'' forum, where thought leaders and key policy-makers across military services, defense agencies, and civilian organizations can come together for actionable discussions and debate. This year's summit will focus on technology and innovation needed to defend critical space assets against increasing and new threats. Download Conference Agenda | Register to attend this Conference 2017 Summit Topics to Includ...
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 08:50:00 +0100
EchoStar Corp. (NASDAQ: SATS) announced today that the EchoStar 105/SES-11 satellite was successfully launched on October 11 at 6:53 PM EDT on a SpaceX Falcon 9 vehicle from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. EchoStar 105/SES-11, a dual-mission satellite for EchoStar and SES, is a hybrid Ku and C-band communications satellite that provides EchoStar with 24 Ku-band transponders of 36 MHz, marketed as EchoStar 105, and SES with a C-band payload of 24 transponders, marketed under the name S...
Tue, 10 Oct 2017 14:00:00 +0100
Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) was recently selected by DigitalGlobe, Inc. as the next-generation WorldView Legion satellite imaging constellation payload provider. Under the contract, Raytheon will deliver the telescopes, detectors and combined electronics to Space Systems Loral, the WorldView Legion space vehicle integrator. Raytheon's new payload doubles DigitalGlobe's capacity to capture multispectral and 30 cm imagery, while tripling to quadrupling the company's capacity to image high-dema...
Tue, 10 Oct 2017 13:32:00 +0100
Mission controllers completed a critical final rehearsal today, confirming that everything and everyone on ground are ready to take over control of Sentinel-5P in the harsh environment of space. A 'team of teams' working at ESA's control centre in Darmstadt, Germany, today conducted a final rehearsal for this week's launch of Sentinel-5P. They were joined by engineers working at ground stations on three continents and by teams responsible for the launcher and its payload in Plesetsk, Russ...
Tue, 10 Oct 2017 13:00:00 +0100
Ushering in a new era of advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, the U.S. Air Force declared the first Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT)-built GPS III satellite "Available for Launch." The Air Force's "AFL" declaration is the final acceptance of Lockheed Martin's first GPS III Space Vehicle (GPS III SV01) prior to its expected 2018 launch. GPS III SV01 will bring new capabilities to U.S. and allied military forces, and a new civil signal that will improve future connectivity worldwide ...
Mon, 9 Oct 2017 16:30:00 +0100
With four days to liftoff, the next Sentinel satellite is now on the launch pad at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia. The rocket will be fuelled two days before launch, set for Friday at 09:27 GMT (11:27 CEST). The Sentinel-5P satellite has been at the cosmodrome since early September going through a series of tests and being readied for the big day. After being sealed from view in the rocket fairing last week, it was rolled out to the launch pad on Saturday. "This point in any...
Mon, 9 Oct 2017 15:00:00 +0100
L3 Technologies (NYSE:LLL) announced today that it has been awarded a contract to provide Hawkeye(tm) III Lite VSAT satellite communications terminals and on-site training to the U.S. Air National Guard's Joint Incident Site Communications Capability (JISCC) teams. These terminals will facilitate direct communication from remote locations in all 50 states and U.S. territories. Additionally, these Army Strategic Command (ARSTRAT)-certified terminals will enable access to the Wideband Global SATCO...
Mon, 9 Oct 2017 12:03:00 +0100
The third batch of Iridium(r) NEXT satellites built by Thales Alenia Space has been successfully launched by SpaceX from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. After the perfect commissioning of the first 20 satellites launched in January and June, thirteen of which are now interconnected and operating in full compatibility with the initial Block One Constellation, with seven being maneuvered to an adjacent plane, this new milestone allows to continue the fantastic Iridium(r) NEXT adventure. ...
Thu, 5 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100
Astronomers have identified a bumper crop of dual supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies. This discovery could help astronomers better understand how giant black holes grow and how they may produce the strongest gravitational wave signals in the Universe. The new evidence reveals five pairs of supermassive black holes, each containing millions of times the mass of the Sun. These black hole couples formed when two galaxies collided and merged with each other, forcing their superma...
Wed, 4 Oct 2017 14:30:00 +0100
As preparations for the launch of Sentinel-5P continue on track, the team at Russia's Plesetsk site has bid farewell to the satellite as it was sealed from view in the Rockot fairing. Liftoff is set for 13 October at 09:27 GMT (11:27 CEST). Since its arrival at the launch site at the beginning of September, Sentinel-5P has been through a series of stringent tests to confirm there was no damage during the flight from the UK. These tests have made sure that everything is in good working orde...
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  • CV: Astrophysics papers English Editor

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    Personal information
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    Candidate Profile
     Date Submitted:11-05-2013
     Last Modified:12-05-2013 (04:42)
    Job information
     Current job:Astrophysics papers English Editor
     Employment Term:Permanent
     Job location:Anywhere
     Date available:within 3months
     Industry:Civil Agencies/International Organizations
     KeywordsLow luminosity Galaxies
    CV

    CURRENT POSITION

    03/01/2008 – Language Editor at Astronomy and Astrophysics Observatoire Paris

    01/04/2009 – 15/05/2009 Editorial Assistant at Astronomy and Astrophysics Paris

     

     

                         PREVIOUS POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH POSITIONS

    08/11/2007 - 31/12/2009 Honorary postdoctoral researcher at Glasgow University

     

    08/01/2006 - 08/11/2007 Postdoctoral fellowship, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy

     

    16/04-31/12 in 2005 Universitäts-Sternwarte/Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen (Cluster galaxies)

     

    16/09/2004-15/04/2005 Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany (Jan-Apr 2005)

                                            Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching, Germany (Sep 04-Jan 05)

     

    15/01/2002-15/09/2004 Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy Postdoctoral fellow (January 2002 - December 2004), Spectroscopy of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS).

     

    01/09/1999-14/01/2001 Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom. PPARC Post Doctoral Research Associate (PDRA) in Extragalactic Astronomy (28 months) (PPARC grade Alpha 4) Planetary nebulae imaging, detection and kinematics of M31 bulge/halo.

     

     

    PARALLEL ACADEMIC POSITION

    01/02/1999-31/08/1999 University of Durham, United Kingdom.

    Assistant to Starlink Computer Manager, Physics Department.

     

     

          EDUCATION AND QUALIFICATIONS

    01/10/1994-30/09/1998 University of Durham, United Kingdom. Ph.D. in Extragalactic Astronomy, Low-Luminosity Elliptical Galaxies Spectroscopic line-strength gradients, stellar populations & line-of sight velocity distributions of 14 low-luminosity elliptical galaxies. PhD Thesis Supervisor: Prof. Roger L. Davies.

    Passed by PhD viva examination on 9th December 1998.

    01/10/1990-30/06/1994 University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.

    BSc. Honours Physics & Astronomy (Upper Second Class).

    Prizes: Carnegie Vacation Scholarship (1993), University Observatory, Glasgow, awarded to study buoyancy waves in upper atmosphere; the bias created by flux errors on star magnitudes measurements leading to publication Clarke (1996), MNRAS, 278, 635.

    First & Second Class Mathematics/Physics/Astronomy degree exam exemptions (1990-3)

    15/08/1985-30/06/1990 Greenock Academy, Greenock, United Kingdom.

    5 Scottish Certificate of Education (SCE) Highers (1990): Mathematics (A), Physics (A), Chemistry (A), Computing (A), English (B); 5 SCE ``O'' Grades, 4 SCE Standard Grades (1989).

    Prizes: Dux of School (1990), prizes in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Geography, Computing.

     

     

                            OBSERVING EXPERIENCE AND TALKS

    Observing

    WYFFOS spectroscopy for WINGS Nearby Clusters project, WHT, La Palma, 25-26 June 2003.

    FORS2 multi-slit spectroscopy for EDisCS project, VLT, Paranal, Chile, 26-31 March 2003.

    WYFFOS multi-fibre spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in M31, WHT, 25-28 October 2001.

    Near-IR imaging of dwarf galaxies in Coma cluster, UKIRT, Hawaii, U.S.A., 5-6 April 2001.

    Imaging of M31 halo for detection of planetary nebulae, INT, La Palma, 3-8 August 2000.

    Long-slit spectroscopy of elliptical galaxies, Multiple Mirror Telescope, Tuscon, Arizona,

    U.S.A., 22-25 February 1995.

     

    Invited talks

    Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at redshift z~2'', Arcetri, 10 October 2007.

    Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at redshift z~2'', GMASS meeting, 14 May 2007.

    Early-type galaxy evolution as function of redshift and environment'', Arcetri, 6 April 2006.

    EDisCS: the ESO Distant Cluster Survey'', Seminar, Göttingen, 2 May 2005.

    EDisCS: the ESO Distant Cluster Survey'', Seminar, Innsbruck, 7 April 2005.

    EDisCS: the ESO Distant Cluster Survey'', Seminar, Padova, 30 May 2003.

    Dynamics of the halo of M31'', Seminar, Padova, 2 May 2002.

    Dynamics of the Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy'', IAU Symposium No. 209,``Planetary Nebulae - Their Role and Evolution in the Universe'', Canberra, Australia, 19-23 November 2001.

    Halo mass dynamics of M31 using planetary nebulae velocities'' The Shapes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos'', Yale University, U.S.A., May 2001.

    Spectroscopic ages of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies'', Birmingham, U.K., 25-26 May 1998.

    Velocity anisotropies of elliptical galaxies'', National Astronomy Meeting, U.K., 9 April 1997.

    Stellar populations of elliptical galaxies'', Preston Galaxy Workshop, U.K., 31 October 1996.

     

    Teaching experience

    Part-time supervision of PhD students 1999-2001 (LJMU); 2003-2004 (Padova); 2005

    (Göttingen) Correction of undergraduate solutions to Physics problems, University of Durham, 1994-1997.

    Providing assistance to undergraduate students in computing laboratories, Univ. of Durham, 1995.

    Participation in University Open Days 1993-1998. Data reduction experience

    Extensive use of IRAF environment long-slit/multi-slit spectroscopy and near-IR UKIRT UFTI data reduction. Experience with Starlink tools and ESO-MIDAS. Telescope proposals successful AAO-2dF 2005A Galaxy star formation rates in the infall regions of a z~0.5 cluster (4 nights)

    VLT-VIMOS P75/P77 The star formation histories of galaxies infalling into a cluster environment.

     

     

    REFEREES

    Name: Prof. Roger L. Davies Prof. Andrea Cimatti Dr. Bianca Poggianti

                       Address: Chairman of Physics & Dipartimento di Astronomia INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico

    Email: rld@astro.ox.ac.uk a.cimatti@unibo.it bianca.poggianti@oapd.inaf.it

     

    Philip Wetton Professor Universit`a di Bologna, di Padova of Astrophysics, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5 University of Oxford, Bologna, Italy I-35122, Padova Department of Physics Italy Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Rd. Oxford, United Kingdom.

     

     

    PUBLICATIONS: Peer-reviewed

    Halliday, C., PhD Thesis, University of Durham, 1999, passed by exam, 9 December (1998).

    Halliday, C., Davies, R.L., Kuntschner, H., Birkinshaw, M., Bender, R., Saglia, R., Baggley, G.,

    Line-of-sight velocity distributions of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies, 2001, MNRAS, 326, 473.

    Merrett, H. R., Kuijken, K., Merrifield, M. R., Romanowsky, A. J., Douglas, N. G., Napolitano, N. R.,

    Arnaboldi, M., Capaccioli, M., Freeman, K. C., Gerhard, O., Evans, N. W., Wilkinson, M. I.,

    Halliday, C., Bridges, T. J., Carter, D. Tracing the Star Stream Through M31 Using Planetary Nebula

    Kinematics, 2003, MNRAS, 346, 62L. De Lucia, G., Poggianti, B.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Clowe, D., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poirier, S., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R. P., Simard, L., White, S.,

    The Build-Up of the Red-Sequence in Galaxy Clusters since z~0.8, 2004, ApJ, 610, L77.

    Halliday, C., Milvang-Jensen, B., Poirier, S., Poggianti, B.M., Jablonka, P., Aragon-Salamanca, A.,

    Saglia, R. P., De Lucia, G., Pello, R., Simard, L., Clowe, D., Rudnick, G., Dalcanton, J., White, S.,

    Zaritsky, D., Spectroscopy of high redshift galaxy clusters in the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS):

    Redshifts, cluster velocity dispersions and cluster substructuring for 5 clusters, 2004, A&A, 427, 397.

    Morelli, L., Halliday, C., Corsini, E. M., Pizzella, A., Thomas, D., Saglia, R. P., Davies, R. L., Bender, R.Birkinshaw, M., Bertola, F., Nuclear stellar discs in low-luminosity elliptical galaxies: NGC 4458 andNGC 4478, 2004, MNRAS, 354, 753.

    Finn, R., Zaritsky, D., McCarthy, D.W., Poggianti, B., Rudnick, G., Halliday, C., Milvang-Jensen, B.,

    Pello, R., Simard, L, H-derived star-formation rates for three z~0.75 EDisCS galaxy clusters, 2005, ApJ,

    630, 206.

    White, S. D. M., Clowe, D. I., Simard, L., Rudnick, G., De Lucia, G., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Bender, R.,

    Best, P., Bremer, M., Charlot, S., Dalcanton, J., Dantel, M., Desai, V., Fort, B., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P.,

    Kauffmann, G., Mellier, Y., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poggianti, B., Poirier, S., Rottgering, H.,

    Saglia, R., Schneider, P, Zaritsky, D. EDisCS – the ESO Distant Cluster Survey: sample definition and

    optical photometry, 2005, A&A, 444, 365.

    Clowe, D., Schneider, P., Aragon-Salamanca, A., De Lucia, G., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Mellier, Y.,

    Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poggianti, B., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R. P., Simard, L., White, S., Zaritsky,

    D., Weak lensing mass reconstructions of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, 2005, A&A, 451, 395.

    Poggianti, B., von der Linden, A., De Lucia, G., Desai, V., Simard, L., Halliday, C., Aragon-Salamanca,

    A., Bower, R., Varela, J., Best, P., Clowe, D. I., Dalcanton, J., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R.,

    Rudnick, G., Saglia, R., White, S. D. M., Zaritsky, D. The Evolution of the Star Formation Activity in

    Galaxies and its Dependence on Environment, 2006, ApJ, 642, 188.

    Johnson, O, Best, P. N., Zaritsky, D., Clowe, D. I., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P.,

    Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poggianti, B., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R., Simard, L., White, S. D. M The Xray

    properties of optically-selected z>0.6 clusters in the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, 2006, MNRAS, 371,

    1777.

    Halliday, C., Carter, D., Bridges, T.J., Jackson, Z.C.,Wilkinson, M.I.,Quinn, D.P.,Evans, N.W., Douglas,

    N.G., Merrett, H.R., Merrifield, M.R., Romanowsky, A.J., Kuijken, K., Irwin, M.J., Planetary nebulae

    velocities in the disc and bulge of M31, 2006, MNRAS, 369, 97.

    Merrett, H.R., Merrifield, M.R., Douglas, N.G., Kuijken, K., Romanowsky, A.J., Napolitano, N.R.

    Arnaboldi, M., Capaccioli, M., Freeman, K.C., Gerhard, O., Coccato, L., Carter, D., Evans, N.W.

    Wilkinson, M.I., Halliday, C., Bridges, T.J., A deep kinematic survey of planetary nebulae in the

    Andromeda galaxy using the Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph, 2006, MNRAS, 369, 120.

    De Lucia, G., Poggianti, B.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., White, S.D.M., Zaritsky, D., Clowe, D., Halliday,

    C., Jablonka, P., von der Linden, A., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R.P., Simard, L.

    The build-up of the colour-magnitude relation in galaxy clusters since z~0.8, 2007, MNRAS, 374, 809.

    Lilly, S. and 76 other authors including Halliday, C., zCOSMOS: a Large VLT/VIMOS redshift survey

    covering 0 <3>

    Scarlata, C., Carollo, C.~M., Lilly, S.~J., Feldmann, R., Kampczyk, P., Renzini, A., Cimatti, A.,

    Halliday, C., Daddi, E., Sargent, M.T., Koekemoer, A., Scoville, N., Kneib, J., Leauthaud, A.,

    Massey, R., Rhodes, J., Tasca, L., Capak, P., McCracken, H.J., Mobasher, B., Taniguchi, Y.,

    Thompson, D., Ajiki, M., Aussel, H., Murayama, T., Sanders, D.~B., Sasaki, S., Shioya, Y.,

    Takahashi, M. The redshift evolution of early-type galaxies in COSMOS: Do massive early-type galaxies

    form by dry mergers?, 2007, ApJ, 172, 494.

    Desai, V., Dalcanton, J.J., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Jablonka, P., Poggianti, B., Gogarten, S.M., Simard, L.,

    Milvang-Jensen, B., Rudnick, G., Zaritsky, D, Clowe, D. I., Simard, L., Halliday, C., Pello, R., Saglia, R.,

    White, S.D.M., The Morphological Content of Ten EDisCS Clusters at 0.5 < z < 0.8, 2007, ApJ, 660,

    1151.

    Halliday, C., Daddi, E., Cimatti, A., Kurk, J., Renzini, A. Mignoli, M., Bolzonella, M., Pozzetti, L.,

    Dickinson, M., Zamorani, G., Berta, S., Franceschini, A., Cassata, P., Rodighiero, G., Rosati, P., GMASS

    ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z~2: I. The stellar metallicity, 2008, A&A, 479, 417.

    Cimatti, A., Cassata, P., Pozzetti, L., Kurk, J., Mignoli, M., Renzini, A., Daddi, E., Bolzonella, M., Brusa,

    M., Rodighiero, G., Dickinson, M., Franceschini, A., Zamorani, G., Berta, S., Rosati, P., Halliday, C.,

    GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z ~ 2. II. Superdense passive galaxies: how did they form

    and evolve?, 2008, A&A, 482, 21.

    Milvang-Jensen, B., Noll, S., Halliday, C., Poggianti, B.M., Jablonka, P., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Saglia,

    R.P., Nowak, N., von der Linden, A., De Lucia, G., Pello, R., Moustakas, J., Poirier, S., Bamford, S.P.,

    Clowe, D.I., Dalcanton, J.J., Rudnick, G.H., Simard, L., White, S.D.M. and Zaritsky, D., Spectroscopy of

    clusters in the ESO distant cluster survey (EDisCS). II.. Redshifts, velocity dispersions, and substructure

    for clusters in the last 15 fields,2008, A&A, 482, 419.

    Cassata, P., Cimatti, A., Kurk, J., Rodighiero, G., Pozzetti, L., Bolzonella, M., Daddi, E., Mignoli, M.,

    Berta, S., Dickinson, M., Franceschini, A., Halliday, C., Renzini, A. Rosati, P., Zamorani, G., GMASS

    ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z~2. III. The emergence of the color bimodality at z ~2, 2008 A&A,

    483, L39.

    Caputi, K. and 64 co-authors including Halliday C., The Optical Spectra of 24 mu-m Galaxies in the

    COSMOS Field. I. Spitzer MIPS Bright Sources in the zCOSMOS-Bright 10k Catalog, 2008, ApJ, 680,

    939.

    Poggianti, B.M., Desai, V., Finn, R., Bamford, S., De Lucia, G., Varela, J., Aragon-Salamanca, A.,

    Halliday, C., Noll, S., Saglia, R., Zaritsky, D., Best, P., Clowe, D., Milvang-Jensen, B., Jablonka, P.,

    Pello, R., Rudnick, G., Simard, L., von der Linden, A. and White, S., The relation between star formation,

    morphology and local density in high redshift clusters and groups,2008, ApJ, 684, 888.

    Adams, J., Halliday, C., Mednick, A., Usdin, M., Bertout, C. and Walmsley, M., English language editing

    at A&A, 2008, A&A, 490, E19-E23.

    Mignoli, M. and 64 co-authors including Halliday C., The zCOSMOS redshift survey: the threedimensional

    classification cube and bimodality in galaxy physical properties, 2009, A&A, 493, 39.

    Poggianti, B.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Zaritsky, D., De Lucia, G., Desai, V., Jablonka, P., Halliday, C.,

    Milvang-Jensen, B., Rudnick, G., Varela, J., Bamford, S., Best, P., Clowe, D., Noll, S., Saglia, R., Pello,

    R., Simard, L., von der Linden, A. and White, S., The environments of starburst and post-starburst

    galaxies at z=0.4-0.8, 2009, ApJ, 693, 112.

    Barazza, F.D., Jablonka, P., Desai, V., Jogee, S., Arag´on-Salamanca, A., De Lucia, G., Saglia, R.P.,

    Halliday, C., Poggianti, B.M., Dalcanton, J. J., Rudnick G., Milvang-Jensen, B., Noll, S., Simard, L.,

    Clowe, D.I., Pell´o, R., White, S.D.M., and Dennis Zaritsky, Frequency and properties of bars in cluster

    and field galaxies at intermediate redshifts, 2009, A&A, 497, 713.

    Maier, C. and 59 co-authors including Halliday, C The Dependence of Star Formation Activity on Stellar

    Mass Surface Density and Sersic Index in zCOSMOS Galaxies at 0.5 <0.9>

    Galaxies at 0.04 < z < 0.08, 2009, ApJ, 694, 1099.

    Sánchez-Blázquez, P., Jablonka, P., Noll, S., Poggianti, B. M., Moustakas, J., Milvang-Jensen, B.,

    Halliday, C., Aragón-Salamanca, A., Saglia, R. P., Desai, V., De Lucia, G., Clowe, D. I., Pelló, R.,

    Rudnick, G., Simard, L., White, S. D. M., Zaritsky, D., Evolution of red-sequence cluster galaxies from

    redshift 0.8 to 0.4: ages, metallicities, and morphologies, 2009, A&A, 499, 47.

    Noll, S., Pierini, D., Cimatti, A., Daddi, E., Kurk, J.D., Bolzonella, M., Cassata, P., Halliday, C., Mignoli,

    M., Pozzetti, L., Renzini, A., Berta, S., Dickinson, M., Franceschini, A., Rodighiero, G., Rosati, P.,

    Zamorani, G., GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z~2. IV. The variety of dust populations,

    2009, A&A, 499, 69.

    Kurk, J., Cimatti, A., Zamorani, G., Halliday, C., Mignoli, M., Pozzetti, L., Daddi, E., Rosati, P.,

    Dickinson, M., Bolzonella, M., Cassata, P., Renzini, A., Franceschini, A., Rodighiero, G., Berta, S.,

    Witnessing the assembly at z=1.6 of a galaxy cluster (GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z~2 -

    V), A&A accepted (arXiv:0906.4489).

    De Lucia, G., Poggianti, B. M., Halliday, C., Milvang-Jensen, B., Noll, S., Smail, I., Zaritsky, D., On the

    role of the post-starburst phase in the build-up of the red-sequence of intermediate redshift clusters, 2009,

    MNRAS accepted (arXiv:0907.3922).

    Rudnick, G., von der Linden, A, Pello, R., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Marchesini, D., Clowe, D.I., De Lucia,

    G., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Poggianti, B.M., Saglia, R.P., Simard, L., White, S.D.

    M., and Zaritsky, D., The Rest-Frame Optical Luminosity Function of Cluster Galaxies at z < 0.8 and the

    Assembly of the Cluster Red Sequence, 2009, ApJ, 700, 1559.

    Pozzetti, L. and 59 co-authors including Halliday, C., zCOSMOS - 10k-bright spectroscopic sample. The

    bimodality in the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function: exploring its evolution with redshift, 2009, A&A revised

    version after referee report.

    Pello, R., Rudnick, G., De Lucia, G., Simard, L., Clowe, D.I., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Saglia, R.

    P., White, S.D.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Halliday, C., Poggianti, B.M., Dalcanton, J.J., Dantel-Fort, M.,

    von der Linden, A, Mellier, Y., Rottgering, H. and Zaritsky, D., Photometric redshifts and cluster

    tomography in the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, 2009, A&A, accepted for publication.

    Simard, L., Clowe, D. I., Desai, V., Dalcanton, J.J., von der Linden, A., Poggianti, B. M.., White, S.D.M..,

    Aragon-Salamanca, A., De Lucia, G., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Saglia, R., Pello,

    R., Rudnick, G., Zaritsky, D, 2009, A&A, accepted for publication.

    Zucca, E., and 59 co-authors including Halliday, C., The zCOSMOS survey: the role of the environment in

    file:///F|/ActiveData/Domestic/CLAIRE/2009/challiday.htm (8 of 17)22/11/2009 13:49:04

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    the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types, 2009, A&A, revised after referee report.

    Iovino, A., and 59 co-authors including Halliday, C., The zCOSMOS Redshift Survey: how group

    environment alters global dowsizing trends, 2009, A&A, accepted for publication.

    Vergani, D., and 64 co-authors including Halliday, C., K+a galaxies in the zCOSMOS survey: Physical

    properties of systems in their post-starburst phase, 2009, A&A, accepted for publication.

    Bongiorno, A., and 63 co-authors including Halliday, C., The [OIII] emission line luminosity function of

    optically selected type–2 AGN from zCOSMOS, 2009, A&A accepted for publication.

     

    PUBLICATIONS:Conference proceedings and reports

    Halliday, C. Baggley, G., Davies, R.L., Birkinshaw, M., Bender, R., Saglia, R.P., Line Strength Gradients

    in Low Luminosity Galaxies, IAU 171, New Light on Galaxy Evolution, ed. R. Bender & R.L. Davies

    (1995).

    Halliday, C., Halo mass dynamics of M31 using planetary nebulae velocities

    Proceedings of Yale Cosmology Workshop, "The Shapes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos", New

    Haven, Connecticut, USA May 2001, Yale University Press. Editor: P.Natarajan.

    Halliday, C., Carter, D., Jackson, Z.C., Bridges, T.J., Evans, N.W., Wilkinson, M.,

    Dynamics of the Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy, Proceedings of IAU Symposium 209, 2003

    Publisher: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Editors: S. Kwok, M. Dopita and R. Sutherland.

    Rudnick, G., White, S., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Bender, R., Best, P., Bremer, M., Charlot, S.,

    Clowe, D., Dalcanton, J., Dantel, M., de Lucia, G. Desai, V., Fort, B., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P.,

    Kauffmann, G., Mellier, Y., Milvang-Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poggianti, B., Poirier, S. Rottgering, H., Saglia,

    R., Schneider, P., Simard, L., Zaritsky, D., Studying high redshift galaxy clusters with the ESO Distant

    Cluster Survey, The Messenger, June 2003, volume 112.

    Halliday, C., Milvang-Jensen, B., Poirier, S., Poggianti, B.M., Jablonka, P., Aragon-Salamanca, A.,

    Saglia, R. P., De Lucia, G., Pello, R., Simard, L., Clowe, D., Rudnick, G., Dalcanton, J., White, S.,

    Zaritsky, D., Spectroscopy of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS), Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters:

    Intense Life in the Suburbs. Edited by Antonaldo Diaferio, IAU Colloquium 195, p.236-238.

    De Lucia, G., Poggianti, B.M., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Clowe, D., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Milvang-

    Jensen, B., Pello, R., Poirier, S., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R. P., Simard, L., Dalcanton, J., White, S., Zaritsky,

    D., Build-up of the Colour-Magnitude Relation to z~0.8, Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters: Intense Life in the

    Suburbs. Edited by Antonaldo Diaferio, IAU Colloquium 195, p.473-477.

    Marmo, C., Fasano, G., Pignatelli, E., Poggianti, B., Bettoni, D., Halliday, C., Varela, J., Moles, M.,

    Kjaergaard, P., Couch, W., Dressler, A. 2004, Scaling relations for galaxy clusters (for the Wide-field

    Imaging survey of Nearby Galaxy clusters - WINGS), Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters: Intense Life in the

    Suburbs. Edited by Antonaldo Diaferio, IAU Colloquium 195, 242-244.

    file:///F|/ActiveData/Domestic/CLAIRE/2009/challiday.htm (9 of 17)22/11/2009 13:49:04

    Foreword

    Merrett, H. R., Merrifield, M. R., Kuijken, K., Romanowsky, A. J., Douglas, N. G., Napolitano, N. R.,

    Arnaboldi, M., Capaccioli, M., Freeman, K. C., Gerhard, O., Carter, D., Evans, N. W., Wilkinson, M. I.,

    Halliday, C., Bridges, T. J., Mapping the Dynamics of M31, Proc. of ESO Workshop on Planetary

    Nebulae beyond the Milky Way, 2006, Stanghellini, L., Walsh, J. R., Douglas, N. G., 281.

    Gogarten, S.M., Dalcanton, J.J., Simard, L., Rudnick, G.G., Desai, V., Aragon-Salamanca, A., Clowe, D.

    I., Poggianti, B.M., Jablonka, P., Milvang-Jensen, B., Halliday, C., von der Linden, A., De Lucia, G.,

    White, S.D.M., Saglia, R., Noll, S. "The Size-Luminosity Relation of Disk Galaxies in EDisCS Clusters",

    2006, IAU Symposium, 235.

    Halliday, C., Cimatti, A. Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at z~2, Proc. of At the Edge of the

    Universe: Latest Results from the Deepest Astronomical Surveys, Editors J. Afonso, H.C. Ferguson, B.

    Mobasher, R. Norris.

    Kurk, J., Cimatti, A., Zamorani, G., Halliday, C., Mignoli, M., Pozzetti, L., Daddi, E., Renzini, A.

    Bolzonella, M., Dickinson, M., Berta, S., Franceschini, A., Cassata, P., Rodighiero, G., Rosati, P.,

    A spectroscopic study of a z=1.6 galaxy overdensity with GMASS, Proc. Of First Subaru International

    Conference: "Panoramic Views of Galaxy Formation and Evolution", in Hayama, Japan, December 2007.

    Kurk, J., Cimatti, A., Daddi, E., Mignoli, M., Bolzonella, M., Pozzetti, L., Zamorani, G., Cassata, P.,

    Halliday, C., Berta, S., Brusa, M., Dickinson, M., Franceschini, A., Rodighiero, G., Rosati, P., Renzini,

    A.,

    A VLT Large Programme to Study Galaxies at z ~ 2: GMASS - the Galaxy Mass Assembly Ultra-deep

    Spectroscopic Survey, 2009, The Messenger, 135, 40.

    Poggianti, B., Aragón-Salamanca, A., Bamford, S., Barazza, F., Best, P., Clowe, D., Dalcanton, J., De

    Lucia, G., Desai, V., Finn, R., Halliday, C., Jablonka, P., Johnson, O., Milvang-Jensen, B., Moustakas, J.,

    Noll, S., Nowak, N., Pelló, R., Poirier, S., Rudnick, G., Saglia, R., Sánchez-Blázquez, P., Simard, L.,

    Varela, J., von der Linden, A., Whiley, I., White, S., Zaritsky, D. The ESO Distant Cluster Sample:

    Galaxy Evolution and Environment out to z = 1, 2009, The Messenger, vol. 136, p. 54.

     

     

                                       Description of research experience

     

    PhD thesis research at the University of Durham, United Kingdom

    In my PhD thesis research I completed an analysis of long-slit spectroscopy for the major and

    minor axes of 14 low-luminosity early-type galaxies (with -17 > MB > -20) in the Virgo cluster

    and small groups (Halliday 1999; Halliday et al. 2001), acquired using the Multiple Mirror

    Telescope, USA.

     

    Stellar populations

    Early-type galaxy age and metallicity were constrained by the measurement of the spectroscopic

    absorption line-strength indices of the Lick/IDS system. I measured Hbeta, Mgb, Mg2, Fe5270

    and Fe5335 Lick/IDS indices as a function of radius (for a signal-to-noise of ~50/angstrom) to

    one photometric radius for the major and minor axes of each galaxy adopting the index

    definitions of Trager et al. (1998); index measurements were fully established to the Lick/IDS

    system by correcting for the effects of galaxy velocity dispersion using stellar data and correcting

    data to the resolution of the Lick/IDS system. I studied the galaxy star formation histories by

    comparison with the evolutionary population synthesis models of Worthey (1994). I detected age

    gradients for 5 of 14 galaxies, and metallicity gradients for all galaxies. Measurements of Mg2/

    Mgb and Fe5270 and Fe5335 were found to be offset in general from models, indicative of a light

    element overabundance and relatively brief star formation timescales. This overabundance was

    constant as a function of radius, in most cases, consistent with the coeval formation of the galaxy

    population.

     

    Galaxy line-of-sight velocity distributions

    I constrained the shape of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) to one effective radius

    of the major and minor axes of each galaxy using the parameterization defined by Gerhard (1993)

    and van der Marel & Franx (1993) to quantify asymmetrical and symmetrical deviations of the

    LOSVDs from a Gaussian distribution (Halliday et al., 2001). Non-zero LOSVD asymmetries

    were measured for the major axis of all galaxies; measurements for the minor axes were close to

    zero if present at all. These results were consistent with the presence of global rotation or more

    than one kinematical component. Kinematically-decoupled cores (KDCs) were detected for 2

    galaxies: NGC 4458, for which a rotating core was detected; and the well-known KDC galaxy

    NGC 3608. A kinematically-distinct core was detected in NGC 4478, a nearby compact elliptical

    companion of M87. At the galaxy centre, NGC 4478 has complex kinematics along both its

    major and minor axes, including a central decrease in velocity dispersion. With PhD student

    Lorenzo Morelli, NGC 4458 and NGC 4478 were the subject of a paper in which stellar

    population data was interpreted with the detection of a central nuclear disk for both galaxies

    using HST imaging and comparison with evolutionary population synthesis models. The centre of

    NGC 4478 was found to be more metal-enriched and younger, and to have lower light element

    abundances, suggesting a more prolonged star formation history than its parent galaxy. By

    contrast, the centre of NGC 4458 was found to have similar stellar populations to the surrounding

    galaxy, suggesting a more homogenous formation of core and galaxy (Morelli et al., 2004).

     

     

    Planetary nebulae surveys of the Andromeda Galaxy

    I played an important role in an imaging and spectroscopy survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in

    the Andromeda Galaxy. Our project started with the acquisition of WYFFOS (WHT, La Palma)

    multi-object spectroscopy for 294 PNe at the centre of M31 from the catalogue of Ciardullo et al.

    (1989). I reduced this data and measured the PNe radial velocities and rotation at the galaxy

    centre. With a PhD student, I acquired Wide Field Camera (INT, La Palma) [OIII] narrow-band

    and continuum band imaging to survey the bulge of M31 to a radius of 14 kpc (1/3 of field was

    covered in Halpha), and completed WYFFOS spectroscopy for 423 PNe detected in our imaging

    survey. I completed all 6 nights of INT WFC imaging observations with Z. Jackson and

    subsequent imaging data reduction alone. For our spectroscopic data, I measured radial velocities

    for 723 (unique) PNe by fitting the wavelength position of the [OIII]5007 emission line. For

    many spectra, the weak [OIII]4959 emission line was also visible confirming that high-redshift

    emission-line galaxies had not been observed. Stellar rotation & velocity dispersion were

    measured to a projected radius of 11.5 kpc using our PNe radial velocity dataset, and our data

    were consistent with bulge rotational support out to this radius. Our research was published in

    MNRAS.

     

    The ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS)

    Since January 2002 I have been part of a study of galaxy formation and evolution in high-redshift

    clusters as part of the spectroscopic phase of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) (P.I.:

    Simon D.M. White, http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/galform/ediscs/index.shtml), which is a

    photometric and spectroscopic survey of galaxies in 26 EDisCS clusters in the redshift range 0.40

    0.96 selected from the optical Las Campanas Distant Cluster Survey (Gonzalez et al., 2001).

    Our project is based on deep optical photometry acquired with FORS VLT (White et al. 2005),

    near-IR photometry acquired with SOFI NTT (Aragón-Salamanca et al. in prep), and multi-slit

    spectroscopy from FORS2 VLT (Halliday et al. 2004; Milvang-Jensen et al. 2008). These groundbased

    data were complemented by HST ACS images for 10 clusters (Desai et al. 2007), XMM

    data for 3 clusters (Johnson et al. 2006), and ESO 2.2m WFI BVI wide imaging for 19 clusters.I

    have participated in the project spectroscopic phase: the acquisition, reduction, analysis, and

    interpretation of the VLT FORS2 spectroscopy. I had primary responsibility for the data

    reduction of VLT FORS2 spectroscopic data acquired in 2002 during 11 nights of observations of

    35 multi-slit masks, and was first author of the first spectroscopy paper of the EDisCS project

    (Halliday et al. 2004), in which we presented our target-selection strategy, observations, data

    reduction procedures, galaxy redshift measurements, and a constraint of cluster substructure for 5

    EDisCS galaxy clusters. We demonstrated how our selection strategy had maximised our cluster

    galaxy dataset, which were targetted using our VLT FORS optical and SOFI NIR imaging and

    photometric redshift algorithms. We detected significant cluster substructure for two EDisCS

    clusters of cluster velocity dispersions exceeding 1000 km s-1: these clusters are unlikely to be

    virialized.

     

    Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at redshift z ~2

    Galaxy star formation histories can be constrained using the chemical abundances of galactic

    stars and interstellar medium. Gas-phase metallicities of intermediate to high redshift (z~2) starforming

    galaxies measure oxygen abundances using the R23 and N2 methods. At z~2 these methods

    require near-infrared spectroscopic data and important diagnostic lines become affected by

    terrestial sky-line emission (Erb et al 2006).

    With Emanuele Daddi, Andrea Cimatti and the GMASS collaboration, I have measured the

    stellar metallicity of redshift z~2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) using a photospheric absorptionline

    index defined by Rix et al. (2004) (R04) in the rest-frame ultra-violet (UV) (the 1978 index).

    R04 used Starburst99 stellar population synthesis model predictions of star-forming galaxies

    (Leitherer et al. 1999) and the non-LTE OB stellar atmosphere code WMBasic (Pauldrach et al.

    2001) to derive theoretical, star-forming galaxy spectra for metallicities of 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, 1.0, and

    2.0 solar. We constrained the stellar metallicity of SFGs at z~2 in the Galaxy Mass Assembly

    ultradeep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS) by selecting and coadding 75 star-forming galaxy

    spectra. The equivalent width (EW) measurement of the 1978 index determined for our coadded

    spectrum of 75 star-forming galaxies was 3.72 angstroms for a mean weighted stellar mass of 9.4

    x 109 solar masses. Using our recalibration of the R04 empirical relation for GMASS rest-frame

    spectral resolution, we inferred a measurement of galaxy stellar metallicity and its error of 0.267

    (+0.118/–0.082) solar. We directly compared our coadded galaxy spectrum with the R04 model

    spectra for 5 metallicities of 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 solar. We found closest agreement

    between our spectrum and the R04 model spectrum for 0.2 times solar metallicity. Our stellar

    metallicity measurement is lower than the gas-phase metallicity observational data of Erb et al.

    (2006) for galaxies of similar stellar mass. We propose that we are observing a light element

    overabundance being established in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.

     

    Proposed research plans

    Identifying the primary drivers of galaxy formation and evolution with redshift

    Determining how a galaxy in the present-day Universe formed at higher redshift remains one of

    the most disputed questions in observational astrophysics. This question may be difficult to

    answer for each single galaxy but considerable insight continues to be obtained by the

    comprehensive detection and measurement of the properties of galaxies of all types at all

    redshifts. I propose to research with members of the zCOSMOS collaboration at ETH Zurich to

    help establish the most complete catalog in terms of both mass, environment, and redshift of

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    galaxy properties achievable to redshift z~2. I propose to help compare these data with theoretical

    predictions of galaxy properties as a function of redshift of cosmological simulations that

    incorporate the latest models of how e.g., the galaxy star formation history, gas content, mass and

    metallicity are affected by different environments. Group environments are understood to play

    significant roles in forming galaxy morphology, star formation histories, and galaxy gas

    reservoirs. I propose to help achieve 100% spectroscopic completeness for all groups detected by

    Knobel et al. by observing all candidate group members (as yet unobserved) according to the

    photometric redshifts of the 30K photometric survey. A remaining open question is whether

    groups themselves are responsible for the present-day distribution of galaxy properties or if

    additional processes affect for example galaxies destined to become members of galaxy clusters

    at intermediate to low redshift. I propose to compile complementary data sets of rich clusters

    from z~1 to z~0. At redshifts as high as 2, it would be invaluable to identify and acquire

    spectroscopic data of galaxy group members and field galaxies to measure the higher redshift

    properties of the possible progenitors of galaxies in lower redshift galaxy clusters and groups,

    respectively. I would develop campaigns to acquire deeper spectroscopic data of galaxies in

    representative group, field and cluster samples to ensure that Balmer absorption indices can be

    measured reliably for galaxies observed so far by zCOSMOS and to perform e.g., measurements

    of galaxy velocity dispersions for absorption-line galaxies and to reconstruct the internal velocity

    fields of emission-line galaxies. A dependence of galaxy star formation histories and rates on

    cluster environment would be assessed by analyzing wide-field spectroscopy of galaxies falling

    into high redshift galaxy clusters. To achieve this aim at z~0.8, an EDisCS ESO VLT VIMOS

    Service Mode proposal was approved time to observe the EDisCS cluster cl1216 in Period 75,

    and reapproved in Period 77 during which 6% of our science observations were completed.

    Another important galaxy property that I propose to help measure is the amount of gas in a

    galaxy. I would hope to collaborate with the ZENS survey to measure the gas mass inferred from

    HI measurements. At higher redshift, I would develop practical methods based on CO data out to

    redshift of two.

     

    Local Group galaxy evolution: M31

    Galaxies are believed to form by the accretion and merger of smaller galactic subunits as

    described by Lambda CDM hierarchical cosmological scenarios (e.g., Springel, Frenk & White

    2006). These models predict that galactic haloes contain the remnants of progenitor galaxies and

    should be metal-poor and have substructure detectable in kinematical and chemical metallicity

    data. Lambda CDM predictions are supported by detection of tidal streams and accreted dwarf

    satellites in the Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), and observations of stellar

    substructure in RGB star surveys of M31. Galaxy disk, bulge, and halo kinematics have been

    measured for M31 (e.g., Halliday et al. 2006, Merrett et al. 2006). These data are most practically

    acquired for galaxies in the Local Group, and while distances to Galactic stars remain uncertain a

    prime target for study of galaxy dynamics and kinematics is our neighbour spiral galaxy M31.

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are detectable to all galactic radii because of their [OIII] emission lines

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    and at radii far beyond one effective radius provide alternative tracers to the faint integrated

    stellar light. They are the dying remnants of ~1-8 solar mass stars and therefore representative

    members of the galactic stellar population. The abundances of elements such as oxygen and neon

    change during the lifetime of a star because of the dredge-up of stellar nucleosynthesis products.

    In contrast, elements such as sulphur, chlorine, and argon have abundances that remain

    unchanged and provide reliable measures of the galaxy metallicity at the time of formation of its

    stars. Henry, Kwitter & Balick (2004) presented sulphur, chlorine, and argon chemical abundance

    data of 85 Galactic PNe.

    We propose to complete a homogeneous wide-field imaging survey of the halo of M31 to detect

    PNe to a galactic radius of 40 kpc well into the galactic halo. Follow-up spectroscopy survey data

    would measure the abundances sulphur, chlorine, argon, oxygen, and neon. Ionisation correction

    factors (ICFs), often applied when measuring galaxy metallicities using the electron temperature

    method, would be calibrated to allow, in the future, more practical measurements of abundances

    using spectroscopic data with more restricted wavelength ranges. With collaborators, I propose to

    investigate whether the sulphur anomaly found by Henry, Kwitter & Balick (2004) for the Galaxy

    exists for M31 or if it is caused by present calibrations of the sulphur ICFs. Metallicity data

    would be compared with similar data for M31 red giant stars and globular clusters (GCs). It is

    unclear whether the GCs observed by Huxor and collaborators originate from the formation of

    M31, or if they were accreted during a recent merger event, hierarchical build-up of M31, or were

    formed during dissipational assembly of the galaxy. Surveys of red-giant star have been

    completed out to 70 kpc but these studies have been completed for small fields of view. I propose

    to complete a contiguous, wide-field survey of the PNe stellar population of M31, to a radius of

    40 kpc. Measuring the total mass of M31 is another outstanding problem, since both the orbits of

    stars and the velocity anisotropy must be constrained. The mass of the halo of M31 was measured

    by Evans & Wilkinson (2000) and Evans et al. (2000) using kinematics of PNe, globular clusters

    and satellite galaxies. PNe are more numerous than GCs and in spite of a decline in number

    density with radius, the kinematics of PNe at large galactic radii provide important data for

    measuring the halo mass. We propose to complete spectroscopic projects to measure PNe radial

    velocities, to a galactic radius of 40 kpc. These data could contribute to ongoing analyses of the

    galaxy kinematics and velocity anisotropy being directed by Mark Wilkinson. In collaboration

    with Romano Corradi, Bruce Balick, and Karen Kwitter, 4 nights of INT WFC observational time

    was awarded in September 2007 to extend our M31 PNe detection survey to 20 kpc.

    The X-ray perspective of early-type galaxy formation

    I would have interest to study early-type galaxy formation, using existing X-ray data. The

    formation of early-type galaxies (ETGs: ellipticals and S0s) is an outstanding puzzle in

    extragalactic astronomy. Study of the evolution in rest-frame optical luminosity functions to a

    redshift z~1 supports a galaxy down-sizing scenario whereby massive ETGs (MB 1010

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    MBSOLAR) were assembled and experienced little star formation after z~1, and less massive

    ETGs instead formed at redshifts below z~1 as the result for example of the truncation of star

    formation in disk galaxies (e.g., Cimatti et al. 2006; Scarlata et al. 2006). In the local Universe,

    this bimodal nature in star formation histories is reproduced by the SAURON survey (e.g.,

    Kuntschner et al. 2006). The global kinematics of ETGs are furthermore dependent on

    luminosity: massive “giant ellipticals” are primarily anisotropic rotators, their structure supported

    by random motion indicative of a dissipationless formation; less-luminous ellipiticals are

    isotropic rotators most likely formed as the result of a more dissipational collapse. For galaxies in

    general, in the local Universe, Kauffmann et al. (2003) identified a discontinuity in physical

    properties of 105 galaxies at stellar mass ~3x1010 MBSOLAR. In theoretical cosmological

    simulations Kereš et al. (2005) found a mass dividing galaxies formed primarily by cold gas

    accretion (<1011 MBSOLAR) and hot gas accretion. These observational and theoretical data

    cannot yet provide unique answers to the question of how ETGs form. A wider set of

    observations should provide additional clues. I propose to help develop research projects to

    explore the X-ray properties of ETGs as a function of galaxy luminosity, redshift, and

    environment. I propose to relate physical properties (age, metallicities, colours, alpha-element

    overabundances) of early-type galaxies, to their X-ray emission properties at different redshifts.

    Early-type galaxy X-ray emission has been poorly studied outside the nearby Universe where

    individual X-ray sources have been resolved by the Chandra observatory for a few tens of

    galaxies. Based on these studies, two types of early-type galaxies (ETGs) have been identified

    based on the main contributors to their X-ray emission: “optically-bright” ETGs (LB 1010

    LBSOLAR), and “optically-faint” ETGs (LB < 1010 LBSOLAR). The typical rest-frame X-ray

    spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of “optically-bright” ETGs are believed to be dominated by

    hot interstellar gas at soft X-ray energies (0.5 - 2 keV), and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) at

    hard X-ray energies (2 keV). In contrast the X-ray emission of “optically-faint” ETGs is due

    primarily to LMXBs at both soft and hard X-ray energies, with a mild contribution from

    interstellar gas at soft X-ray energies. In nearby galaxies, LMXBs are believed to form mainly

    inside globular clusters (“optically-bright” ETGs), or in the galactic field (“optically-faint”

    ETGs). Determining the origin of the LMXB populations and the interstellar gas components of

    ETGs, will help determine until when recent star formation continued, the source of the

    interstellar gas heating (supernovae, winds, AGNs), and the evolution in the ratio of X-ray to

    optical luminosity with redshift.

    Only ETGs within the local Universe are detectable individually by X-ray observations. To

    monitor galaxy X-ray luminosity evolution with redshift, data must be combined i.e., “stacked”

    as a function of galaxy properties. Lehmer et al. (2007) (L07) demonstrated the power of this

    approach. For stacked X-ray data of ~500 ETGs, identified using data from the GEMS and

    COMBO-17 surveys, they detected evolution in the X-ray luminosity of “optically-faint” ETGs

    but no evolution for “optically-bright” ETGs; this is consistent with scenarios of galaxy

    downsizing. They attributed the evolution in X-ray luminosity of “optically-faint” ETGs to the

    emergence of an LMXB population, following a star-formation episode in the past 1 Gyr, and its

    subsequent decline in X-ray luminosity. It would be invaluable to verify this conclusion using

    spectroscopic data. I propose to study the evolution in ETG X-ray luminosity to a redshift z~1

    and (if possible) as a function of environment. ETGs would be identified with spectroscopic,

    morphological, and photometric data. Spectroscopic absorption-line indices defined by the Lick/

    IDS system (e.g., using index definitions from Trager et al. 1998) would be measured in

    “stacked” spectra created by combining available spectra of ETGs for which X-ray data were

    stacked. AGN contamination remains a major concern (cf. L07), and would be addressed using

    companion photometric and X-ray data sets.


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