Research Fellow at the Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
Born in Foligno (PG), Italy, in 03/02/1983.
Short Profile: From the Academic Year 2011/2012, he is a Research Fellow at the Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, working on a project founded by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), under the supervision of Dr. Budimir Rosic, University Lecturer at the Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University. He received his PhD at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, on the academic year 2010/2011, discussing a thesis on “Modelling of Thermal Radiation and Soot Emissions in Aerospace Applications”, under the supervision of prof. Diego Lentini. In the Academic Year 2006/2007 he obtained the laurea cum laude in Space Engineering at Sapienza University of Rome. Since 2007 he has been collaborating actively with prof. Diego Lentini, associate professor of the Aerospace Propulsion group at Sapienza University of Rome, and with other professors at Sapienza University of Rome: prof. Marcello Onofri, full professor of the Aerospace Propulsion group, with prof. Franco Rispoli, full professor of the Machines group, with prof. Alessandro Corsini, associate professor of the Machines group, and with prof. Domenico Borello, researcher and assistant professor of the Machines group. As part of the CAST project, he has also collaborated with the Propulsion group at CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Agency) and the Department of Chemistry at University of Bari. His main research topics are radiative heat transfer in atmospheric re-entry and thrust chambers, turbulent combustion, turbulence-combustion-radiation interactions, soot modelling, and turbulence modelling, convective heat transfer and combustion chambers-turbine interactions in turbomachinery applications.
Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University.
Research focus: radiative heat transfer in atmospheric re-entry and thrust chambers, turbulent combustion, turbulence-combustion-radiation interactions, soot modelling, turbulence modelling, convective heat transfer and combustion chambers-turbine interactions in turbomachinery applications.
• December 2011-Nowadays: Research Fellow at the Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
• July-September 2011: Coordinated and continuous collaboration contract at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, for the research activities on “Analysis of the phenomena of formation/oxidation of soot and consequent radiative heat transfer in combustion chambers of space thrusters by means of numerical simulation”.
Technical skills and competences
• Microsoft applications, Microsoft Office, Internet browsing
• programming in Fortran77, Fortran90, C++, Matlab
• CFD: XENIOS++ (FEM-based CFD code developed by prof. Rispoli's research team, at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome), TBLOCK (CFD turbomachinery code developed by prof. Denton, at the Whittle Laboratory, Cambridge University), FLUENT (ANSYS)
• MESH software: ICEM (ANSYS)
• FEM: libMesh library
• Parallel computing: PETs and MPI libraries
• CFD post-processing: TECPLOT
• Academic Year 2010/2011: PhD in “Aeronautics and Space Technoloy” (XXIV Cycle), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, discussing a thesis on “Modelling of Thermal Radiation and Soot Emissions in Aerospace Applications”.
• Academic Year 2008/2009-2010/2011: PhD student in “Aeronautics and Space Technoloy” (XXIV Cycle), Aerospace Propulsion group, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
• Academic Year 2006/2007: Laurea degree in Space Engineering obtained at Sapienza University of Rome with vote 110/110 cum laude, discussing a thesis on “Algorithm for the Evaluation of Radiative Heat Transfer on Re-entry Bodies”.
• Academic Year 2005/2006-2006/2007: Student of Space Engineering, at Sapienza University of Rome.
• Academic Year 2004/2005: Bachelor degree in Aerospace Engineering obtained at Sapienza University of Rome with vote 110/110, discussing a thesis on “Animal Flight Mechanics”.
• Academic Year 2002/2003-2004/2005: Student of Aerospace Engineering, at Sapienza University of Rome.
• School Year 2001/2002: Diploma degree at the Scientific Sciences High School “G. Marconi” of Foligno (PG), Italy, with vote 100/100.
• School Year 1997/1998-2001/2002: Student at the Scientific Sciences High School “G. Marconi” of Foligno (PG), Italy.
• 10-15 June 2012: ASME Conference Turbo Expo 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark (Turbine Technical Conference & Exposition).
• 28 September-3 October 2009: Visiting student (at the invitation of ESA, European Space Agency) at the ESA Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, accompanying the students of Master in “Space Transportation Systems”, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, for the launch of Ariane 5 on 30 September 2009.
• Object-Oriented Programming in C++, prof. S. Tagliaventi, course of Master in “Scientifing Computing”, Academic Year 2008/2009, Department of Mathematics, Sapienza University of Rome (February-April 2009).
• Mathematical Models for Time Series, prof. C. Cammarota, course of Master in “Scientifing Computing”, Academic Year 2008/2009, Department of Mathematics, Sapienza University of Rome (April-June 2009).
• Advanced Modelling of Turbulent Transport Processes, prof. K. Hanjalic, Academic Year 2008/2009, Department of Electric Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome (Mach-June 2009).
• Lessons, lectures and seminaries of Master in “Space Transport Systems”, Academic Year 2008/2009, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome.
Support to Official Courses
• Academic Year 2010/2011: Teaching Assistant for the course “Aerospace Propulsion”, Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome.
• Academic Year 2010/2011: Teaching Assistant for the course “Energetic Systems II”, Energetic Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome.
Co-Advisor in Master Theses
• Simon Jacobi, “Influence of Lean Premixed Combustor Geometry on the First Turbine Vanes' Aerothermal Performance”, Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Master Thesis Academic Year 2012/2013.
• Christopher Lim, “Computational Fluid Dynamics for Accelerating Turbomachinery Design”, Honour School of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Fourth Year Project Report Academic Year 2012/2013.
Radiative heat transfer in atmospheric re-entry:
Many space missions envision the use of aerobraking re-entry techniques to return payloads from high, geostationary, lunar or interplanetary orbits. Aerobraking takes advantage of aerodynamic drag to reduce the momentum of the re-entry body. Because of the high altitudes and speeds involved, and the consequent extremely high temperatures attained behind the shock wave preceding the body, intense heating of the re-entry vehicles occurs by both convection and radiation from the high temperature gas. In particular, in the case of re-entry from lunar or interplanetary orbits, which involve very high speeds (over 10 km/s), the temperature behind the shock can attain tens of thousand degrees Kelvin. In such conditions, thermal radiation makes a significant contribution to the energy exchange within the fluid and to the overall heat load on the body, and accordingly needs to be correctly modelled when designing heat shields.
Radiative heat transfer plays a dual role in the heat balance of the re-entry spacecraft:
1. The high temperatures attained by the atmospheric gases, as a result of the passage through the shock wave, lead them to radiate to both the surrounding environment and to the re-entry body (with transfer from the environment to the body).
2. The high temperatures attained by the wall surfaces of the body, as a result of the aerodynamic heating (due to both convection and radiation), lead them to radiate towards the surrounding environment (with heat transfer from the body to the environment) and, in the case of concave geometries (such as wing surfaces), to other portions of the body itself.
Furthermore, the exceptionally high temperature levels, together with the low pressure prevailing at high altitude, imply that ionization phenomena occur and significant vibrational nonequilibrium effects are anticipated; therefore, the tools used to predict the radiative heating environment must account for vibrational nonequilibrium.
The radiative heat transfer code, termed XENIOS-RADIATION (written in Fortran90 language), based on the Discrete Transfer Method by Locwood and Shah (1981), has been developed by Dr. C.M.M. to be used in combination with the spectral radiative database Mspec (developed at the Department of Chemistry, University of Bari) and the thermochemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes solver CAST (developed by CIRA, Italian Aerospace Research Centre, under the aegis of ASI, Italian Space Agency), to compute radiative heating under vibrational nonequilibrium conditions. Thermal radiation is evaluated by post-processing the CFD solution worked out by CAST code, and coupling between thermal radiation and fluid dynamic is obtained by iteratively feeding the term of the divergence of the radiative heat flux, as determined by XENIOS-RADIATION, back to the energy equation solver. The spectral behavior of radiative properties of high-temperature air is described by means of the dedicated spectral database Mspec.
The radiative heat transfer equation (RTE) is a directional ordinary differential equation. The Discrete Transfer approach solves the RTE by integrating it along a finite number of rays, or lines-of-sight, by means of a double discretization process: one over the overall solid angle, in order to extract a finite number of directions along which the RTE is solved, and the other along each such directions, to integrate the RTE. This method allows controlling the accuracy of the resulting solution, and the ensuing CPU cost, by prescribing the number of lines-of-sight, as well as the integration step along them. Unlike other models, the Discrete Transfer method converges to the exact solution; further, it also allows controlling the accuracy of the resulting solution and, obviously, the computational costs in term of CPU time and required memory, by prescribing the number of lines-of-sight and the integration step along them. Its most complex and problematic facet is the tracing of the rays, and their interaction with the computational domain; dedicated algorithms are required to manage these crucial issues. Such topics are overcome in XENIOS-RADIATION by an original ray-tracing algorithm, based on the Finite Element Mehod (FEM). Along each line-of-sight, the RTE integration step is allowed to vary, by taking it proportional to the characteristic length of the domain element being traversed; this option allows attaining a good compromise between intended level of accuracy and computational cost, while also minimizing errors due to the FEM intrinsic approximations. At any rate, the FEM approach allows the code to handle very complex geometries.
XENIOS-RADIATION includes account for the vibrational temperatures of the component species by means of the spectral database Mspec. The emissivity and absorption coefficient of high-temperature air are described by a multi-group spectral model, partitioning the spectral range of interest into a discrete number of intervals, with wavelength larger than the characteristic width of atomic and diatomic rotational lines, and calculating both an average emissivity and an average absorption coefficient over each interval. The spectral database used, termed Mspec, is parametrized by a limited number of internal temperatures, in addition to the individual species’ number densities, thereby making allowance for nonequilibrium in the multi-temperature approach. The use of the multi-group model to describe hightemperatureair radiative properties introduces a further degree of discretization, partitioning the spectral range of interest into a given numberof intervals of wavelengths, and calculating average values of the emissivity and absorption terms over each interval. The integral over the wavelength range can be evaluated as a summation over the number of spectral intervals. The multi-group approach, by partitioning the spectral range into a given finite number of intervals, introduces another degree of control, with implications on the accuracy of the solution and on the resulting computational cost.
Radiative heat transfer in thrust chambers / Turbulent combustion / Turbulence-combustion-radiation interactions:
Most combustion applications imply operating conditions of low-speed flow and turbulent regime. In such conditions, thermal radiation is always an important, if not dominant, mode of heat transfer, because of the high temperatures attained within the flame (with heat transfer from the flame to the surrounding environment and to the walls). Furthermore, the interactions between turbulent fluid dynamics, combustion and radiation affect substantially the flow field, the temperature field and chemical composition into the combustion chamber. Interaction between fluid dynamics, combustion and radiation takes place via the density, allowing to the effect of the last two items on the temperature field, and this again requires a correct account of the effect of turbulent fluctuations.
The RTE (Radiative Transfer Equation) solver, based on the Discrete Transfer Method, developed by Dr. C.M.M., has been translated in C++ language and structured according to the object-oriented programming paradigm to be incorporated in the FEM-based CFD code for turbulent nonpremixed combustion XENIOS++ (developed by prof. Rispoli's research team, at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome).
The FEM-based CFD code XENIOS++ is written in C++ language, structured according to the object-oriented programming paradigm and characterized by the essential functions of the language in which it was developed (e.g., inheritance, polymorphism). Moreover, the code is based on the use of some open-source computer libraries: libMesh is a library implementing all the functionalities necessary to properly describe and use the finite element technique; PETSc is a linear algebra library implementing a set of parallel linear solvers; MPI is the most widely used library for parallel computing, that implements the standard Message Passing Interface.
Fluid dynamical and thermochemical closures of the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are enforced via the first-moment k-ε model and the stretched laminar flamelet approach, respectively. Coupling between thermal radiation, combustion and turbulent fluid dynamic is obtained by introducing the computed term of divergence of radiative heat flux in the Favre-averaged energy equation; accordingly, the nonadiabatic extension of the stretched laminar flamelet model is required; the radiative properties of the reacting gas mixture are defined via an appropriate experimentally-based global model, to include the radiative contribution from radiative gaseous species.
An important interaction that radiation may have, via its impact on the temperature field, is with pollutant agents, soot in particular. Soot is the technical term that refers to solid impure carbon particles resulting from pyrolysis and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons at elevated temperature conditions. In hydrocarbon flames thermal radiation comes both from gas phase and soot: the concentration of the latter within the flame is in turn regulated by formation/oxidation processes dependent on the local temperature and chemical composition.
The production of soot in a flame is a complex process consisting of several chemical reactions and physical mechanisms taking place in sequence:
1. particle inception, whereby the first condensed phase material arises from the gaseous fuel-molecules via their oxidation and/or pyrolysis products (mainly unsaturated and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons);
2. surface growth, by leading to accretion of the solid phase material, by the attachment of gas phase species to the particle surface, and the ensuing incorporation into the particulate phase, via surface reactions;
3. particle agglomeration or coagulation, a physical process in which colliding soot particles stick to each other, leading to the formation of larger particles;
4. oxidation, which counteracts the growth mechanisms by turning the mass of solid soot particulate back into gas-phase species, via oxidative attack on the surface of soot particles.
Accordingly, the evaluation of soot production and emission within a flame requires the adoption of dedicated, detailed models describing the above complex phenomena.
A two-equation, semi-empirical soot model has been incorporated by Dr. C.M.M., in the FEM-based CFD code for turbulent nonpremixed combustion XENIOS++ (developed by prof. Rispoli's research team, at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome), written in C++ language.
The soot model by Woolley et al. (2009) here adopted represents soot particle nucleation, surface growth, coagulation and oxidation; C2H2 and C6H6 are assumed as the soot precursor species, with the former also considered as the only contributing to the increase of soot mass by surface growth, while oxidation is assumed to be due to attack by O2 and OH; this model is incorporated into the Favre-averaging formulation by means of the solution of transport equations for the mean soot particle number density and the mean soot mass fraction.
Radiative heat transfer is taken into account, by means of the RTE solver, based on the Discrete Transfer method. The radiative properties of the reacting gas mixture and of the soot particles are defined via an appropriate global model, to include the radiative contribution from both gaseous species and solid soot particles.
Turbulence modelling, convective heat transfer and combustion chambers-turbine interactions in turbomachinery applications:
The main goal of the current research activity founded by MHI would be to enhance the capabilities of the existing in-house solver TBLOCK in solving complex heat transfer problems. It will include implementing conjugate heat transfer model, developing complex meshing tools and incorporating different turbulence modelling strategies. A core objective will be to develop a LES turbulence modelling strategy that is practical for turbomachinery applications, with a strong emphasis on combustor-turbine interactions (inlet boundary conditions, smooth switch between RANS and LES regions, etc.).
• CAST (Aerothermodynamics Configurations for Space Transport), a project funded by ASI (Space Italian Agency) on a national basis and dedicated to the creation of a numerical integrated solver, performing the simulations of complex aerothermodynamics, aerodynamics and aeroacustics phenomena, for design applications and research purposes. The project leader is CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Centre), coordinating a research team composed by research centres (CNR, National Research Centre), Universities (Department of Chemistry, University of Bari; Department of Aerospace Engineering, Politechnic of Turin; Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome; Department of Electrical Engineering; University of Bologna; Department of Space Science and Engineering and Department of Energy, Applied Thermofluidynamics and Environmental Influences, University of Naples) and industries (Alta S.p.A., ELV S.p.A. and Thales Alenia Space Italy). As part of this project, Dr. C.M.M. worked on the evaluation of radiative heat treansfer for re-entry bodies, by means of numerical simulations, collaborating with the Propulsion group at CIRA, for the CFD analysis, and with the Department of Chemistry at the University of Bari, for the characterization of high-temperature air radiative properties.
• ISP-1 (In Space Propulsion 1), a project set up to improve the fundamental knowledge and the techniques which are necessary to allow Europe to implement new ambitious space programs involving cryogenic propulsion. It concentrates on liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, and liquid methane propellants, and the anticipated progress will address: LOX methane combustion; heat and propellant management; materials tribology, compatibility, and hydrogen embrittlement. The partner institutions are: Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General Joint Research Centre (JRC); Deutsches Zentrum Fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR); University of Liege; Polytechnic University of Catalonia; Sapienza University of Rome; Czech Technical University in Prague; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES); ALCIMED; Offices National d'Etudes er de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA); Snecma S.A.; University of Poitiers; AVIO S.p.A.; MIKROMA S.A.; BONATRE; Astrium GmbH; Institut Supérieur de Mécanique de Paris. As part of this project, Dr. C.M.M. worked on the analysis of the phenomena of formation/oxidation of soot and consequent radiative heat transfer in LOX-CH4 combustion chambers of space thrusters, by means of numerical simulation.
• MHI research project: Dr.C.M.M. is responsible for development and coordination of the numerical work related to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) research projects.He is responsible for the development and application of CFD to aerodynamics and heat transfer problems related to MHI gas and steam turbines. He is also responsible for coordination of the numerical work related to MHI research projects and for helping PhD and project students. The main goal of the research would be to enhance the capabilities of the existing in-house solver TBLOCK in solving complex heat transfer problems. It will include implementing conjugate heat transfer model, developing complex meshing tools and incorporating different turbulence modelling strategies. A core objective will be to develop a LES turbulence modelling strategy that is practical for turbomachinery applications, with a strong emphasis on combustor-turbine interactions (inlet boundary conditions, smooth switch between RANS and LES regions, etc.). Other responsibilities are: systematically preparing solvers and processing programs for the group, assisting the PhD students and being responsible for the computational resources, working in close collaboration with MHI engineers in defining the most relevant research topics; Dr. C.M.M. is also expected to work in close collaboration with other members of the Osney Lab and represent the research group at external meetings/seminars, either with other members of the group or alone, and collaborate in the preparation of scientific reports and journal articles and occasionally present papers and posters.
• 4th International Workshop on Radiation of High Temperature Gases in Atmospheric Entry, Lausanne (CH), 12-15 October 2010. Radiative Heat Transfer for Interplanetary Re-entry under Vibrational Nonequilibrium Conditions, by C. M. Mazzoni, D. Lentini, G. D'Ammando, R. Votta.
• ASME Turbo Expo 2013 (GT2013), San Antonio TX (USA), 3-7 June 2013. Influence of Large Wake Disturbances Shed from the Combustor Wall on the Vane Leading Edge Film Cooling (GT2013-94622), by C. M. Mazzoni, C. Klostermeier, B. Rosic.
1. C. M. Mazzoni, D. Lentini, G. D'Ammando, R. Votta, “Evaluation of Radiative Heat Transfer for Interplanetary Re-entry under Vibrational Nonequilibrium Conditions”, 4th International Workshop on Radiation of High Temperature Gases in Atmospheric Entry, Lausanne (CH), 12-15 October 2010.
2. M. Di Clemente, A,. Schettino, R. Votta, D. Lentini, C. M. Mazzoni, G. D'Ammando, M. Capitelli, “Radiative Heat Loads in Re-entry Applications”, Second Sino-Italian Conference on Space Aerothermodynamics and Hot Structures, Capua/Roma (Italy), 6-8 July 2010.
3. C. M. Mazzoni, C. Klostermeier, B. Rosic, “Influence of Large Wake Disturbances Shed from the Combustor Wall on the Vane Leading Edge Film Cooling” GT2013-94622, ASME Turbo Expo 2013 (GT2013), San Antonio TX (USA), 3-7 June 2013.
1. C. M. Mazzoni, D. Lentini, G. D'Ammando, R. Votta, “Radiative Heat Transfer for Interplanetary Re-entry”, Aerospace Science and Technology 28 (2013), pp. 191-197.
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